Testudines (Turtles and Tortoises)

 

Suborder: Cryptodira

Family: Carettochelyidae (Pignose Turtles)

—No subordinate taxa

 

Family: Chelydridae (Snapping Turtles)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Chelydra floridana (Hay, 1907) Giant Florida snapping turtle Late Pleistocene Florida, USA Extinct Access

 

Family: Cheloniidae (Sea Turtles)

—No subordinate taxa

 

Family: Dermatemydidae (River Turtles)

—No subordinate taxa

 

Family: Dermochelyidae (Leatherback Turtles)

—No subordinate taxa

 

Family: Emydidae (Pond Turtles/Box and Water Turtles)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Emys orbicularis ingauna Jesu, Piombo, Salvidio, Lamagni, Ortale and Genta, 2004 Liguria pond turtle (rediscovered) Liguria, Italy (north-western) Rediscovered Access
Emys orbicularis ssp. nov. 'Algiers' - - early 20th century "near Algiers" Extinct Access
Graptemys kerneri Ehret & Bourque, 2011 Kerner's map turtle c.13,000 BC Florida, US Extinct Access
Pseudemys hibbardi (Preston, 1979) Hibbard's cooter Late Pleistocene Kansas & Oklahoma, USA Extinct Access
Terrapene carolina putnami (Hay, 1906) Giant box turtle Late Pleistocene-Holocene border USA Extinct Access

 

 

Family: Geoemydidae (Bataguridae) (Asian River Turtles, Leaf and Roofed Turtles, Asian Box Turtles)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Batagur trivittata (Duméril & Bibron, 1835) Burmese roofed turtle (rediscovered) Myanmar (=Burma) Rediscovered Access
Cuora yunnanensis Boulenger, 1906 Yunnan box turtle (rediscovered) Yunnan, China Rediscovered Access
Cuora sp. nov. 'Okinawa' - - Late Pleistocene Okinawa Group, Japan Extinct Access
Geoemyda amamiensis Takahashi, Kato & Ota 2007 Amami leaf turtle Late Pleistocene Tokunoshima Island, Central Ryukyus, Japan Extinct Access
Heosemys depressa (Anderson, 1875) Arakan Forest turtle (rediscovered) Bangladesh & Myanmar Rediscovered Access
Mauremys nipponica (Hirayama, Kaneko, and Okazaki, 2007) Nipponese pond turtle Late Pleistocene Honshu & Kyushu, Japan Extinct Access
Mauremys oshiroi Takahashi, Otsuka & Ota, 2015 - Late Pleistocene Miyakojima Island, Ryukyus Archipelago, Japan Extinct Access
Mauremys yabei (Shikama, 1949) Yabe's pond turtle Late Pleistocene Honshu, Japan Extinct Access
Melanochelys sinhaleyus Deraniyagala, 1953 Sinhalese pond turtle Late Pleistocene Sri Lanka Extinct Access
Rhinoclemmys nicoyana Acuña-Mesen and Laurito-Mora, 1996 Nicoya wood turtle Late Pleistocene Costa Rica Extinct Access
Siebenrockiella leytensis Taylor, 1920 Philippine forest turtle, Palawan turtle (rediscovered) Palawan and Dumaran Islands, Philippines Rediscovered Access
Vijayachelys silvatica Henderson, 1912 Forest cane turtle, Cane turtle, Cochin Forest cane turtle, Kavalai Forest turtle (rediscovered) India Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Kinosternidae (Mud and Musk Turtles)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Kinosternon hirtipes chapalaense Iverson, 1981 Chapala mud turtle (rediscovered) Lago de Chapala and Laguna de Zapotlan basins of Jalisco and Michoacan, Mexico Rediscovered Access
Kinosternon hirtipes magdalense Iverson, 1981 Magdalena mud turtle (rediscovered) Magdalena valley, Michoacan, Mexico Rediscovered Access
Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalum Iverson, 1981 Viesca mud turtle 1961 near Viesca, Coahuila (south-western), Mexico Extinct Access

 

 

Family: Platysternidae (Big-headed Turtles)

—No subordinate taxa

 

Family: Testudinidae (Tortoises)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Aldabrachelys abrupta Grandidier, 1868 Madagascan giant tortoise, Madagascar giant tortoise c.1200 AD Madagascar Extinct Access
Aldabrachelys daudinii Duméril & Bibron, 1835 Daudin's giant tortoise 1830 or later Seychelles Extinct Access
Aldabrachelys gigantea arnoldi Bour, 1982 Arnold's giant tortoise - Seychelles Formerly extinct in the wild Access
Aldabrachelys gigantea hololissa Günther, 1877 Seychelles giant tortoise - Seychelles Extinct in the wild? Access
Aldabrachelys grandidieri Vaillant, 1885 Madagascan giant tortoise, Grandidier's giant tortoise c.884 AD Madagascar Extinct Access
Aldabrachelys sumeirei Sauzier, 1892 Marion's tortoise 1918? Seychelles Invalid (synonym) Access
Aldabrachelys sp. nov. 'Glorieuse' - Glorieuse giant tortoise c.100ka Glorieuse Islands (Grande Glorieuse), Madagascar Extinct Access
Chelonoidis abingdonii (Günther, 1877) Abingdon Island (giant) tortoise, Pinta Island (giant) tortoise 24 June 2012 Abingdon Island (=Pinta Island), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Extinct Access
Chelonoidis alburyorum Franz & Franz, 2009 Abaco tortoise, Albury's tortoise c.1110 AD Great Abaco Island, the Bahamas Extinct Access
Chelonoidis dominicensis ALbury et al., 2018 - Late Quaternary Dominican Republic Hispaniola Extinct Access
Chelonoidis duncanensis (Pritchard, 1996) Pinzón giant tortoise, Duncan Island giant tortoise - Pinzón (=Duncan Island), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Formerly extinct in the wild Access
Chelonoidis elephantopus (Harlan, 1827) Floreana (Island) giant tortoise, Charles Island giant tortoise, Elephant tortoise Holocene (c.
1835-1850?)
Floreana Island (=Charles Island = Santa Maria Island), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Extinct Access
Chelonoidis lutzae Zacarías, de la Fuente, Fernández & Zurita, 2013 Lutz's giant tortoise c.20,000 BC Argentina Extinct Access
Chelonoidis marcanoi Turvey et al., 2017 - Holocene Hispaniola Extinct or invalid (nomen dubium) Access
Chelonoidis phantasticus1 (Van Denburgh, 1907) Fernandina Island giant tortoise, Narborough Island giant tortoise - Fernandina Island (=Narborough Island), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Relocated? Access
Chelonoidis sombrerensis Leidy, 1868 Sombrero giant tortoise Late Pleistocene Sombrero Island, Anguilla Extinct Access
Chelonoidis sp. nov. 'Barbados' - - Late Pleistocene Barbados Extinct Access
Chelonoidis sp. nov. 'Caicos' - Caicos giant tortoise c. 750-1400 AD Middle Caicos Island, Turks and Caicos Extinct Access
Chelonoidis sp. nov. 'Crooked Island' - Crooked Island giant tortoise c.1000 AD? Crooked Island, Bahamas Extinct Access
Chelonoidis sp. nov. 'Curaçao' - Curaçao giant tortoise Late Pleistocene Curaçao Extinct Access
Chelonoidis sp. nov. 'Navassa' - Navassa giant tortoise Late Pleistocene Navassa Extinct Access
Chelonoidis sp. nov. 'St. Eustatius' - St. Eustatius giant tortoise ? St. Eustatius, St. Christopher Bank, Lesser Antilles Extinct Access
Chelonoidis sp. nov. 'Turks' - Turks giant tortoise c.1170 AD Grand Turk Island, Turks and Caicos Extinct Access
Cylindraspis borbonica Bour, 1978 (1979?) - pre-1800 Réunion, Mascarene Islands Invalid (synonym) Access
Cylindraspis indica Schneider, 1783 Réunion giant tortoise 1800 Réunion, Mascarene Islands Extinct Access
Cylindraspis inepta Günther, 1873 Saddle-backed Mauritius giant tortoise, Domed tortoise, Mauritius giant domed tortoise early 1700's Mauritius, Mascarene Islands Extinct Access
Cylindraspis peltastes Duméril & Bibron, 1835 Domed Rodrigues (giant) tortoise, Lesser tortoise, Rodrigues domed tortoise post-1800 (1802?) Rodrigues, Mascarene Islands Extinct Access
Cylindraspis triserrata Günther, 1873 Domed Mauritius giant tortoise, High-fronted tortoise, Mauritius giant flat-shelled tortoise early 1700's Mauritius, Mascarene Islands Extinct Access
Cylindraspis vosmaeri Suckow, 1798 Saddle-backed Rodrigues giant tortoise, Greater saddleback toroise, Rodrigues giant saddleback tortoise post-1800 (1802?) Rodrigues, Mascarene Islands Extinct Access
Geochelone burchardi Ahl, 1926 Tenerife giant tortoise, Burchard's tortoise Late Pleistocene? Teneriffe, Canary Islands, North Africa Extinct Access
Geochelone cubensis Leidy, 1868 Cuban giant tortoise early Holocene Cuba Extinct Access
Geochelone nigra/niger wallacei (Rothschild, 1902) Wallace's giant tortoise ? Rábida Island, Galápagos, Ecuador Extinct Access
Geochelone nigra/niger ssp. nov. 'Santa Fé' - Santa Fé Island giant tortoise c.1890 Santa Fé Island (=Barrington Island), Galápagos Islands, Ecuador Extinct Access
Geochelone vulcanica López-Jurado & Mateo, 1993 Gran Canaria giant tortoise pre-Late Pleistocene? Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, North Africa Extinct Access
Geochelone sp. nov. 'Fuerteventura' - - ? Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, North Africa Extinct Access
Geochelone sp. nov. 'Lanzarote' - - ? Lanzarote, Canary Islands, North Africa Extinct Access
Gopherus donlaloi Reynoso and Montellano-Ballesteros, 2004 Don Lalo’s gopher tortoise Late Pleistocene Mexico Extinct Access
Gopherus hexagonatus Cope, 1893 - Terminal Pleistocene Texas, USA Extinct Access
Gopherus laticaudatus (Cope, 1893) Broad-tailed gopher tortoise Late Pleistocene Texas, USA Extinct Access
Hesperotestudo bermudae Meylan & Sterrer, 2000 Bermuda tortoise pre-Late Pleistocene? Bermuda Extinct Access
Hesperotestudo crassiscutata Leidy, 1889 Southeastern giant tortoise Holocene USA Extinct Access
Hesperotestudo equicomes Hay, 1917 Kansas tortoise Late Pleistocene Kansas & Nebraska, USA Extinct Access
Hesperotestudo incisa Hay, 1916 Incised tortoise Late Pleistocene Florida & Georgia, USA Extinct Access
Hesperotestudo wilsoni Milstead, 1956 Wilson's tortoise Late Pleistocene (Holocene?) New Mexico, Oklahoma & Texas, USA Extinct Access
Hesperotestudo sp. nov. 'El Salvador' - Mesoamerican giant tortoise Late Pleistocene El Salvador Extinct Access
?Kinixys sp. nov. 'Zimbabwe' - Matobo Hills tortoise, Pomongwe tortoise Holocene Zimbabwe Extinct Access
Manouria oyamai Takahashi, Kato & Ota, 2003 Ryukus tortoise Holocene Ryuku Archipelago (Okinawa, Tokunoshima, Iejima, Miyakojima, and Yonagunijima islands), Japan Extinct Access
Megalochelys sp. nov. 'Timor' - Timor giant tortoise Late Pleistocene Timor, Indonesia Extinct Access
Monachelys monensis (Williams, 1952) Mona tortoise c. 1050 BC Mona Island, Puerto Rico Extinct Access
Testudo marginata cretensis Bachmayer, Brinkerink & Symeonidis, 1976 - Late Pleistocene Crete, Greece Extinct Access

1 Recent news regarding the alleged rediscovery of the species by Forest Galante are misleading. The species should never have been considered possibly extinct or extinct because no exhaustive surveys were ever carried out on the island. It is more accurately regarded as having been relocated. Although genetic testing is yet to even confirm the species being extant.

 

Family: Trionychidae (Softshell Turtles)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Cyclanorbis elegans (Gray, 1869) Nubian flapshell turtle c.2000 West Africa Missing Access
Nilssonia nigricans Anderson, 1875 Black soft-shell turtle, Black softshell turtle (rediscovered) Bangladesh & India Rediscovered Access
Rafetus hoankiemensis Hà Dinh Dúc (year?) Hoan Kiem Lake turtle January (pre-20th), 2016 Vietnam Invalid (synonym) Access
Rafetus leloii Hà Dinh Dúc, 2000 Hoan Kiem Lake turtle January (pre-20th), 2016 Vietnam Invalid (synonym) Access
Rafetus swinhoei Gray, 1873 Swinhoe's turtle (functionally extinct) China & Vietnam Functionally extinct Access
Rafetus vietnamensis Binh et al., 2010 Hoan Kiem Lake turtle January (pre-20th), 2016 Vietnam Invalid (synonym) Access

 

 

Suborder: Meiolaniformes

Family: †Meiolaniidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Meiolania damelipi White, Worthy, Hawkins, Bedford and Spriggs, 2010 Efate giant horned turtle, Vanuatu giant tortoise, Vanuatu horned terrestrial turtle c.810 BC Efate Island, Vanuatu Extinct Access
Meiolania mackayi Anderson, 1925 Walpole Island terrestrial horned turtle, Walpole giant horned turtle Late Pleistocene or Holocene? Walpole Island, Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia Extinct Access
Meiolania platyceps Owen, 1886 Lord Howe Island terrestrial horned turtle Late Pleistocene Lord Howe Island, New South Wales, Australia Extinct Access
Meiolania sp. nov. 'New Caledonia' - New Caledonia giant horned turtle, New Caledonian terrestrial horned turtle c.531 AD New Caledonia (including Tiga Island) Extinct if valid Access
Meiolania sp. nov. 'Wyandotte' - Wyandotte giant horned turtle c.43,000 BC Queensland, Australia Extinct Access
?Meiolania sp. nov. 'Viti Levu' - Viti Levu giant horned turtle Late Pleistocene Viti Levu, Fiji Extinct Access
Ninjemys oweni Woodward, 1888 Owen’s giant horned ninja turtle, Owen's (giant) horned terrestrial turtle Late Pleistocene Queensland, Australia Extinct Access

 

 

Suborder: Pleurodira

Family: Chelidae (Austro-American Sideneck Turtles)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Elseya lavarackorum (White & Archer, 1994) - (rediscovered) Northern Territory/Queensland border, Australia Rediscovered Access
Pseudemydura umbrina Siebenrock, 1901 Western Swamp tortoise, Short-necked tortoise, Western short-necked turtle, Western Swamp turtle (rediscovered) Bullsbrook & Ellenbrook, Western Australia, Australia Rediscovered Access

 

 

Family: Pelomedusidae (Afro-American Sideneck Turtles)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Pelusios castaneus seychellensis Siebenrock, 1906 Seychelles black terrapin, Seychelles mud turtle, Seychelles terrapin 1895 Seychelles (Mahé Island?) Invalid (synonym) Access

 

 

Family: Podocnemididae (Madagascan Big-headed and American Sideneck River Turtles)

—No subordinate taxa