The following list contains all references used in the database. Currently it is incomplete, but it will eventually contain c.40,000 individual references. Everything from scientific papers, newspaper articles and books to the grey literature is cited on this website, and will be included here. The only exception is that the many individual references to the species evaluations in the online version of the IUCN Red List are replaced by a single general citation.


Acleto, C. O. (1973). Las algas marinas del Perú. Boletin de la Sociedad Peruana de Botánica 6: 1-164.

Acosta-Galvis, A.R. 2000. Ranas, Salamandras y Caecilias (Tetrapoda: Amphibia) de Colombia. Biota Colombiana: 289-319.

Acosta-Galvis, A. R., and J. V. Rueda-Almonacid. 2004. Sapito arlequín esmeralda. Atelopus muisca. Rueda-Almonacid, J. V., J. D. Lynch, and A. Amézquita eds., Libro Rojo de los Anfibios de Colombia: 128-131. Bogota, Panamericana Formas e Impresos, S.A.

Adam-Smith, Patsy. (1968). Tiger Country: Remote Parts of Tasmania. Sydney: Rigby Ltd.

Adam-Smith, Patsy. (1975). Tiger Country: Remote Parts of Tasmania. Publisher?

Aguilar-Miguel, X., Casas-Andreu, G., and Pineda-Arredondo, E. (2002). Ambystoma lermaense (Lake Lerma salamander). Reproduction and Development. Herpetological Review 33(3): 197.

Aguilar-Miguel, X., Legorreta, G. and Casas-Andreu, G. (2009). Reproducción ex situ en Ambystoma granulosum y Ambystoma lermaense (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae). Acta Zoológica Mexicana 25(3): 443-454.

Allen, M. S. and Steadman, David W. (1990). Excavations at the Ureia Site, Aitutaki, Cook Islands: Preliminary Results. Archaeology in Oceania 25(1): 24-37.

Almendáriz, A., and G. Orcés. 2004. Distribución de algunas especies de la herpetofauna de los pisos: altoandino, temperado y subtropical. Politécnica. Quito 25: 97–150.

Alvarenga, Herculano M. F. and Olson, Storrs L. (2004). A new genus of tiny condor from the Pleistocene of Brazil (Aves: Vulturidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 117(1): 1-9.

Anderson, A. (1989). Prodigious Birds. Moas and Moa-Hunting in New Zealand. Cambridge University Press. 238 pp.

Andrews, A. P. (1985). Thylacine. Thylacinus cynocephalus. Pamphlet produced by the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Macquarie Street, Hobart, Tasmania.

Anonymous. (1963). Animal in Danger. Animals 2(2): pagination?. [J. H. Calaby: "Photograph inside front cover and note on Thylacinus"]

Anonymous. (1966). Thylacine in Western Australia. Monthly Service Bulletin 15: 118. [some kind of publication authored by a staff member of CALM, the predecessor of the DEC]

Anonymous. (1969). The Thylacine or "Tasmanian Wolf". Leaflet (Australian Museum), no. 49. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Anonymous. (1977). Thylacine. 6: 94-95 in The Australian Encyclopaedia. Vol. 4. Grolier Society of Australia : Sydney 3rd edn.

Anonymous. (1984a). Last gape of the Tasmanian tiger. Nature 307: 411.

Anonymous. (1984b). Last gape of the Tasmanian tiger, p.76-77. In: Beyond Vision. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Anonymous. (2015). [photograph and description of Ecnomiohyla rabborum]. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 9(2): 1.

Archer, Michael. (1971). A re-evaluation of the Fromm's Landing Thylacine tooth. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 84: 229-234.

Archer, Michael. (1974). New information about the Quaternary distribution of the Thylacine (Marsupialia: Thylacinidae) in Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 57(2): 43-50.

Archer, Michael. (1976). The dasyurid dentition and its relationships to that of didelphids, thylacinids, borhyaenids, (Marsupicarnivora) and peramelids (Peramelina; Marsupialia). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 24(39): 1-34. [Abstract]

Archer, Michael. (1978). The status of Australian dasyurids, thylacinids and myrmecobiids, pp. 23-42 [29-43?]. In: Tyler, M.J. (ed.). The Status of Endangered Australasian Wildlife. Adelaide: Proceedings of the Centenary Symposium of Royal Zoological Society of South Australia.

Archer, M. (1984). The status of Australian dasyurids, thylacinids and myrmecobiids, pp. 1015-21. In Archer, M. and Clayton, G. (eds) Vertebrate zoogeography and evolution in Australasia (Animals in space and time). Carlisle, Western Australia: Hesperian Press.

Archer, M., Clayton, G. and Hand, S. J. (1984). A checklist of Australasian fossil mammals, pp. 1027-1087. In: Archer, M and Clayton, G. (eds.). Vertebrate Zoogeography and Evolution in Australasia: (Animals in space and time). Carlisle, Western Australian: Hesperian Press.

Ardila-Robayo, M.C. (2005) Atelopus angelito. In: Rueda-Almonacid, J.V., Rodríguez-Mahecha, J.V., Lötters, S., La Marca, E., Kahn, T. & Angulo, A. (Eds.) Ranas arlequines. Conservación Internacional. Panamericana Formas e Impresos S. A., Bogotá, Colombia, 56 pp.

Ardila-Robayo, María Cristina and Ruiz-Carranza, P. M. (1998). Una nueva especie de Atelopus A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron 1841 (Amphibia: Bufonidae) de la Cordillera Central Colombiana. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 1998: 281-285.

Arredondo, Oscar and Storrs L. Olson. (1994). A New Species of Owl of the Genus Bubo from the Pleistocene of Cuba (Aves: Strigiformes). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 107: 436-444.

Ashmole, N. P. (1963a). Subfossil bird remains on Ascension Island. Ibis 103b(3): 382-389.

Ashmole, N. P. (1963b). The extinct avifauna of St Helena Island. Ibis 103b(3): 390-408.

Ashwell, K. W. (2008). Encephalization of Australian and New Guinean Marsupials. Brain, Behavior and Evolution 71(3): 181-199.

Attard, Marie. (2013). Who’s on the menu: Diet and extinction risk of the thylacine. Ph.D. thesis. Biological Sciences, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, Australia.

Attard, M. R. Chamoli, U. Ferrara, T. L. Rogers, T. L. Wroe, S. (2011). Skull mechanics and implications for feeding behaviour in a large marsupial carnivore guild: the thylacine, Tasmanian devil and spotted-tailed quoll. Journal of Zoology 285(4): 292-300.

Attard, M. R. G., Wroe, S. and Rogers, T. L. (In prep) Who’s on the menu? Stable isotopes reveal the thylacine’s diet and potential for competition.

Auffenberg, W. (1958). A small fossil herpetofauna from Barbuda, Leeward Islands, with the description of a new species of Hyla. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 21(3): 248–254.

Australian Museum. (1991). Catalogue of Thylacine Specimens. Sydney: Mammal Department, Australian Museum.


Baker, Allan J. et al. (2005). Reconstructing the tempo and mode of evolution in an extinct clade of birds with ancient DNA: The giant moas of New Zealand. PNAS 102(23): 8257-8262.

Bailey, Col. (2001). Tiger Tales: Stories of the Tasmanian Tiger. Sydney: HarperCollins.

Bailey, Col. (2013). Shadow of the Thylacine: One Man's Epic Search for the Tasmanian Tiger.

Balouet, Jean Christophe and Olson, Storrs L. (1987). A new extinct species of giant pigeon (Columbidae: Ducula) from archeological deposits on Wallis (Uvea) Island, South Pacific. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 100(4): 769-775.

Balouet, J. C. and Olson, Storrs L. (1989). Fossil birds from late Quaternary deposits in New Caledonia. Smithsonian contributions to Zoology 469: 1-38.

Baptista, L. F. et al. (1997). Family Columbidae (pigeons), pp. 60-243. In: del Hoyo, T., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the birds of the world. Volume 4. Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.

Barbour, T. and Loveridge, A. 1928. A comparative study of the herpetological faunae of the Usambara and Uluguru Mountains, Tanganyika Territory, with descriptions of new species. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology [1928]: 87-265.

Barbour, T., and G. K. Noble. 1920. Some amphibians from northwestern Peru, with a revision of the genera Phyllobates and Telmatobius. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Cambridge, Massachusetts 63: 395-427.

Barker, J., G. C. Grigg, and M. J. Tyler. 1995. A Field Guide to Australian Frogs. Edition 2. Chipping Norton, Australia: Surrey Beatty & Sons.

Barrantes, U. (1986). Observaciones de campo del comportamiento reproductivo de Atelopus senex (Anura: Bufonidae) Universidad de Costa Rica, San José. Unpublished, Master's Thesis.

Barrio-Amorós, C. L. 2004. Amphibians of Venezuela. Systematic list, distribution and references. Revista de Ecología Latino-Americana. Mérida 9: 1–48.

Barrio-Amorós, C. L. et al. (2011). A new striking dendrobatid (Dendrobatidae, Aromobatinae: Aromobates) from the Venezuelan Andes. Zootaxa 3063: 39-52.

Barrow, M. V. (2012). Framing the Thylacine. Society and Animals 20(1): 109-110.

Bartholomai, A. (1977). The fossil vertebrate fauna from Pleistocene deposits at Cement Mills, Gove, southeastern Quuensland. Mem. Qld. Mus. 18: 69-73.

Baudement, G. (1849). Thylacine. In: D'Orbigny, M. C. (ed.). Dictionnaire Universel D'Histoire Naturelle, Vol. 12. Paris: Renard, Martinet et Cie.

Bauer, L. 1988. Pijlgifkissers en verwanten: de familie Dendrobatidae. Het Paludarium. Netherlands November: 1–6.

Baynes, A., Merrilees, D. and Porter, J. K. (1975). Mammal remains from the upper level of a late Pleistocene deposit in Devil's Lair, Western Australia. J. Roy. Soc. W. Aust. 49: 88-90.

Beddard, F. E. (1891). On the pouch and brain of the male Thylacine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1891: 138-145.

Beddard, F. E. (1903). Exhibition of and remarks upon sections of the ovary of the thylacine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1903: 116.

Bell, E. A. (1965). Mrs Roberts and the Tasmanian tiger, pp. 103–110. In: (editor?). An historic centenary. Roberts, Stewart S Co. Ltd. 1865–1965. Hobart: Fuller's Book Shop. [According to Calaby: "History of a firm of wool brokers. Ch. 14 contains some interesting historical information and a photograph of a captive group of an adult female and three subadult thylacines. Mrs Roberts had a well-known private zoo"]

Bell, E. A. (1975). Thylacine. Archives Office of Tasmania.

Beresford, Quentin and Bailey, Gary. (1981). Search for the Tasmanian Tiger. Hobart, Tasmania: Blubber Head Press, 81 pp.

Biju, S. D. (2001). A synopsis to the frog fauna of the Western Ghats, India. Occasional Publication 1. ISCB: 1-24.

Biju, SD, Sonali G, Mahony, S, Wijayathilaka, N., Senevirathne, G. and Meegaskumbura, M. (2014). DNA barcoding, phylogeny and systematics of Golden-backed frogs (Hylarana, Ranidae) of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot, with the description of seven new species. Contributions to Zoology 83(4): 269-335.

Biju, S. D. et al. (2014). DNA barcoding reveals unprecedented diversity in Dancing Frogs of India (Micrixalidae, Micrixalus): a taxonomic revision with description of 14 new species. Ceylon Journal of Science (Bio. Sci.) 43(1): 1-87.

BirdLife International. (2014). IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/09/2014.

Blackburn, D. C. (2012). New species of Arthroleptis (Anura: Arthroleptidae) from Ngozi Crater in the Poroto Mountains of southwestern Tanzania. Journal of Herpetology 46(1): 129-135.

Blyth, E. 1852. Report of Curator, Zoological Department. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 21: 341-358.

Boardman, F. (1945). Some points on the external morphology of pouch young of the Marsupial, Thylacinus cynocephalus Harris. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 70: 1-8.

Bokermann, W.C.A. 1963. Una nueva especie de Hyla del sudeste brasileño. Neotropica [1963]: 27-30.

Bond, James. (1936). Birds of the West Indies: An account with full descriptions of all the birds known to occur or to have occurred on the West Indian islands. Baltimore: Waverly Press.

Bornschein, Marcos R., Maurício, Giovanni Nachtigall and Pie, Marcio R. (2015). Rectification of the type locality of Ischnocnema paranaensis (Anura: Brachycephalidae), a missing species of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Zootaxa 3957(2): 249-250.

Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Mancina, Carlos A., Woods, Charles A. and Kilpatrick, C. William. (2012). Chapter 7: Checklist: Updated Checklist of Endemic Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies, pp. 389-415. In: Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Woods, Charles A. and Sergile, F. E. (eds.). Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies: Contributions. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Museum of Natural History and Wacahoota Press. 482 pp.

Bossuyt, F. and Dubois, A. (2001). A review of the frog genus Philautus Gistel, 1848 (Amphibia, Anura, Ranidae, Rhacophorinae). Zeylanica [2001]: 1-112.

Boulenger, G. A. (1882). Catalogue of Batrachia Salientia s. Caudata in the collection of the British Museum, London. 2nd ed. London: Trustees of the British Museum. xvi + 503 pp, 30 pls.

Boulenger, G. A. (1899). Descriptions of new reptiles and batrachians collected by Mr. P.O. Simons in the Andes of Ecuador. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 1899: 454-457.

Boulenger, G. A. (1903). On some batrachians and reptiles from Venezuela. Annales and Magazine of Natural History, series 7: 481-484.

Bourret, R. 1942. Les Batraciens de l’Indochine. Hanoi: Institut Océanographique de l’Indochine.

Bourne, W. R. P., Ashmore, N. P. and Simmons, K. E. L. (2003). A new subfossil night heron and a new genus for the extinct rail from Ascension Island, central tropical Atlantic Ocean. Ardea 91: 45-51.

Brame, A. H. (1968). Systematics and evolution of the Mesoamerican salamander genus Oedipina. Journal of Herpetology 1968: 1-64.

Brandl, E. J. (1972). Thylacine designs in Arnhem Land rock paintings. Archaeology and Physical Anthopology in Oceania 7(1): 24-30.

Brehm, Alfred Edmund. (1895). Tierleben (Life of Animals). Chicago, Illinois: A. N. Marquis & Co. Publishers.

Breton, W. H. (1847). Description of a large specimen of Thylacinus harrisii Exhibit of a large specimen of Thylacinus Harrisii. Tasmanian Journal 3: 125-126.

Brogden, Stanley. (1948). Tasmanian Journey. Melbourne: Morris & Walker for Pioneer Tours.

Broom, R. (1896). Report on a bone brec[c]ia near Wombeyan Caves, N. S. W.. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. W. 21: 48-61.

Brown, B. (1972). The Tasmanian tiger. Skyline 1972: 29-31.

Brown, Robert ("Bob"). (1973). Has the thylacine really vanished? Animals 15(9): 416-419.

Bryant, S.L. and Jackson, J. (1999). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Threatened Species Unit, DPIWE, Hobart

Buk, Steve. (1985). Just how extinct is Tasmania's tiger? International Wildlife, v.15, no.4, July/​ Aug 1985, pp. 36-39.

Bulte, E. H., Horan, R. D. and Shogren, J. F. (2003). Is the Tasmanian Tiger extinct? A biological-economics re-evaluation. Ecological Economics 45(2): 273-281. [Abstract]Burbury, F. (1953). Letter to Eric Guiler, 1953.

Burrell, H. (1921). The Tasmanian Tiger or Wolf (photo). Australian Museum Magazine 1(3): 62.

Bustamante, M. R. (2002). Monitoreos de poblaciones de anuros en los Andes de Ecuador, con énfasis en el estudio poblacional de las especies del Bosque protector Cashca Totoras (Provincia Bolívar). Tesis de Licenciatura, Pontificia Universidad católica del Ecuador.


Calaby, J. H. (1983). Thylacine, 10: 52–53. Australian Encyclopaedia, 4th ed.

Calaby, J. H. and White, C. (1967). The Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) in northern Australia in recent times. Aust. J. Sci. 49: 473-475. [relevant to Thylacinus?]

Campbell, J. A. (1994). New species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) of the milesi group from Guatemala. Herpetologica 1994: 398-411.

Campbell, J. A. and Lawson, D. P. (1992). Hyla bocourti (Mocquard, 1899), a valid species of frog (Anura: Hylidae) from Guatemala. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 1992: 393-399.

Cannatella, D. C. (1981). A new Atelopus from Ecuador and Colombia. Journal of Herpetology: 133-138.

Caramaschi, U. and Cruz, C. A. G. (2011). A, new possibly threatened species of Melanophryniscus Gallardo, 1961 from the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae). Boletim do Museu Nacional. Nova Série. Zoologia. 528: 1-9.

Caramaschi, U. and Jim, J. (1980). Uma nova espécie de Odontophrynus da região de Botucatu, São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 1980: 357-360.

Carr, L. M., (Trish) McLenachan, P. A., Waddell, P. J., Gemmell, N. J., Penny, D. (2015). Analyses of the mitochondrial genome of Leiopelma hochstetteri argues against the full drowning of New Zealand. Journal of Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/jbi.12482

Case, J. A. (1985). Differences in prey utilisation by Pleistocene marsupial carnivores, Thylacoleo carnifex (Thylacoleonidae) and Thylacinus cynocephalus (Thylacinidae). Australian Journal of Mammalogy 8: 45-52.

Chaloupka, G. (1975). Fallen emblem – or lingering star? EZ Review (1):2-4. [possible rock art depcitions of Thylacinus]

Chaloupka, G. (1993). Journey in Time: The World’s Longest Continuing Art Tradition. Chatswood, NSW: Reed. [possible rock art depcitions of Thylacinus]

Chanda, S. K. (1990). A new frog of the genus Rana (Ranidae: Anura) from Manipur, Northeastern India. Hamadryad 15(1): 16-17.

Chanda, S. K. (1994). Anura (Amphibia) of northeastern India. Memoirs of the Zoological Survey of India 19: 1-143.

Chanda, S. K. (2002). Handbook - Indian Amphibians. Kolkata: Zoological Survey of India.

Chanda, S. K. and Ghosh, A. K. (1989). A new frog of the genus Philautus Gistel from the proposed Namdapha Biosphere Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh, North-East India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society [1989]: 215-217.

Channing, A. 2001. Amphibians of Central and Southern Africa. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.

Channing, A. and Howell, K.M. 2006. Amphibians of East Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main.

Channing, A., Menegon, M., Salvidio, S. and Akker, S. 2005. A new forest toad from the Ukaguru Mountains, Tanzania (Bufonidae: Nectophrynoides). African Journal of Herpetology 54: 149-157.

Chapman, B. (1986). Bone remains in Kings Cave, Cave, South Canterbury. N.Z. Speleological Bulletin 7(135): 440-444.

Cheke, A. S. (1987). An ecological history of the Mascarene Islands, with particular reference to extinctions and introductions of land vertebrates, pp. 5-89. In: Diamond, A. W. (ed.), Studies of Mascarene island birds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Cheke, Anthony and Hume, Julian Pender. (2008). Lost Land of the Dodo. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 464 pp.

Chou, R. (1945). [description of Galaxaura barbata], p. 139-140. In: Taylor, W. R. Pacific marine algae of the Allan Hancock Expeditions to the Galápagos Islands. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 12: i-iv, 1-528, 3 figures, 100 plates.

Churcher, C.S. (1985). Dental functional morphology in the marsupial sabre-tooth Thylacosmilus atrox (Thylacosmilidae) compared to that of felid sabre-tooths. Australian Mammalogy 8: 201–220. [J. H. Calaby: "[has] information on Thylacinus"]

Cinelli, F. and Colantoni, P. (1974). Alcune osservazioni del benthos marino sulle coste recciose delle isole Galápagos (Oceano Pacifico). Gruppo ricerche scientifiche e tecniche subacquee, Firenze. 22 pp.

Cisneros-Heredia, D. F. and McDiarmid, R. W. (2007). Revision of the characters of Centrolenidae (Amphibia: Anura: Athesphatanura), with comments on its taxonomy and the description of new taxa of glassfrogs. Zootaxa 1572: 1-82.

Clark, Tim W.; Reading, Richard P.; Wallace, Richard L.; Wilson, Barbara A. (2002). If the Tasmanian Tiger Were Found, What Should We Do? An Interdisciplinary Guide to Endangered Species Recovery. Endangered Species Update 19(4): 194-200.

Clarke, B. T. (1983). A morphological re-examination of the frog genus Nannophrys (Anura: Ranidae) with comments on its biology, distribution and relationships. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 19: 377-398.

Claude, C. (1996). Der Beutelwolf. Thylacinus cynocephalus Harris, 1808. Leben und Sterben einer Tierart. Zurich: Zoologisches Museum der Universität Zürich.

Clucas, E. (1978). Tracing the Decline of the Thylacine. Tasmaniana Library.

Cochran, D. M. (1955). Frogs of southeastern Brazil. United States National Museum Bulletin 1955: 1-423.

Cochran, D. M., and Goin, C. J. (1970). Frogs of Colombia. Bulletin of the United States National Museum 288: 1-655.

Colliver, F. S. (1938). Cave hunting in Victoria. Vict. Nat. 54: 152-155.

Coloma, L. A. 1995. Ecuadorian frogs of the genus Colostethus (Anura: Dendrobatidae). Miscellaneous Publication. Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 87: 1–72.

Coloma, Luis A. (2002). Two species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) from Ecuador. Herpetologica [volume?] [pagination?].

Coloma, Luis A., Lötters, S., Duellman, W.E., and Miranda-Leiva, A. (2007). A taxonomic revision of Atelopus pachydermus, and description of two new (extinct?) species of Atelopus from Ecuador (Anura: Bufonidae). Zootaxa 1557: 1-32.

Coloma, Luis A. et al. (2010). Five new (extinct?) species of Atelopus (Anura: Bufonidae) from Andean Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Zootaxa 2574: 1-54.

Cook, D. L. (1963). Thylacinus and Sarcophilus from the Nullabor Plain. Western Australian Naturalist 9: 47-48. [Thylacine molar found in Tasmanian devil coprolite]

Cope, E. D. (1868). An examination of the Reptilia and Batrachia obtained by the Orton expedition to Equador and the upper Amazon, with notes on other species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia: 96-140.

Cornalia, E. (1849). Vertebratorum Synopsis in Musaeo Mediolanense extantium quae per novum Orbem Cajetanas Osculati collegit Annis 1846–47–1848. Speciebus novis vel minus cognitis adjectis, nec non Descriptionibus atque Iconibus illustratis, curante Aemilio Cornalia. Vertebratorum Synopsis in Musaeo Mediolanense extantium quae per novum Orbem Cajetanas Osculati collegit Annis 1846–47–1848, pp. 304-305.

Cowles, Graham S. (1987). The fossil record, pp. 90-100. In: Diamond, A. W. (ed.). Studies of Mascarene Island Birds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Crawford, A. J. and Smith, E. N. (2005). Cenozoic biogeography and evolution in direct-developing frogs of Central America (Leptodactylidae: Eleutherodactylus) as inferred from a phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25: 536-555.

Crawford, L. D. (1951). "Thylacines: Typed interview notes by Linsay Crawford", 27 November 1951. Thylacine Expeditionary Research Team Files, Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston.

Crawford, L. D. (1952). Tasmanian Tiger. Queen Victoria Museum.

Crisp, E. (1855). On some points relating to the anatomy of the Tasmanian Wolf (Thylacinus) and of the Cape Hunting Dog (Lycaon pictus). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1855: 188–191.

Crump, M.L., Hensley, F.R. and Clark, K.L. (1992). Apparent decline of the golden toad: Underground or extinct? Copeia 1992(2): 413-420.

Cunningham, Daniel John. (1878a). The Nerves of the Fore-Limb of the Thylacine (Thylacinus Cynocephalus or Harrisii) and Cuscus (Phalangista Maculata). J. Anat. Physiol. 12(Pt 3): 427–433.

Cunningham, Daniel John. (1878b). The Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand of the Thylacine (Thylacinus Cynocephalus), Cuscus (Phalangista Maculata), and Phascogale (Phascogale Calura). J. Anat. Physiol. 12(Pt 3): 434–444.

Cunningham, Daniel John. (1881a). The Nerves of the Hind-Limb of the Thylacine (Thylacinus Harrisii or Cynocephalus) and Cuscus (Phalangista maculata). J. Anat. Physiol. 15(Pt 2): 265–277.

Cunningham, Daniel John. (1882) (1881?). Report on some points of anatomy of the thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), cuscus (Phalanger maculata) and phascogale (Phascogale calura) collected during the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger in the years 1873-1876: with an account of the intrinsic muscles and nerves of the mammalian pes. Report on the Marsupialia. Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger, Zoology 5(16): 1-192. Edinburgh: Printed by Neill and Co. for Her Majesty's Stationary Office. [includes 13 plates]

Cunningham, M. (2002). Identification and evolution of Australian Torrent Treefrogs (Anura: Hylidae: Litoria nannotis group). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48(1): 93-102. 


Daniels, R. J. R. (2005). Amphibians of Peninsular India. Universities Press (India) Private Limited, Hyderabad, India, 141-160 pp.

Davies, M. & McDonald, K.R. 1979. A new species of stream-dwelling hylid frog from northern Queensland. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 103: 169-176.

Dawson, E. Y. (1963). New records of marine algae from the Galápagos Islands. Pacific Naturalist 4: 3-23.

Dawson, L. (1982). Taxonomic status of fossil thylacines (Thylacinus, Thylacinidae, Marsupialia) from late Quaternary deposits in eastern Australia, pp 517-525. In: Archer, M. (ed.). Carnivorous Marsupials. Mosman: Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.

Dawson, L. 1985. Marsupial fossils from Wellington Caves, New South Wales; the historic and scientific significance of the collections in the Australia Museum, Sydney. Records of the Australian Museum 37: 55-69.

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