Most Recent Global Extinctions

The following table is guaranteed to be inaccurate. There are undoubtedly many species unknowingly omitted from consideration, simply because they went extinct without ever having been documented. While others must have survived longer than is recognised by science, and possibly still exist. Nevertheless such an incomplete picture of new millennium extinctions is better than none at all.

The list is arbitrarily limited to extinctions that are believed to have taken place since 1 January 2000. Hopefully some of these (sub)species are rediscovered in the future!

Entries listed in bold are tentative post-1999 records.

Entries which are underlined are taxonomically suspect.

Entries which are both bolded and underlined are taxa which are feared extinct again!

An asterisk '*' denotes that the endling(?) died in captivity/ex situ.

 

Scientific name Name (Type) Geographical range Last record Source/s
Ecnomiohyla rabborum* Rabb’s fringe-limbed treefrog Panama 26 September 2016 Platt, 2016
Partula faba faba* Captain Cook's bean snail Raiatea, Society Islands 21 February 2016 Justin Gerlach's website
Emoia nativitatis* Christmas Island forest skink Christmas Island, Indian Ocean 31 May 2014 Woinarski et al., 2017
Adenophorus periens (epiphytic fern) Kaua'i, Moloka'i, and Hawai'i, Hawaiian Islands 2014 Chau et al., 2016
Chelonoidis abingdonii* Abingdon Island tortoise Abingdon Island (=Pinta Island), Galápagos 24 June 2012 Jones, 2013
Diceros bicornis longipes Western black rhino[ceros] West Africa 2012 Gippoliti et al., 2018
Philydor novaesi Alagoas foliage-gleaner (bird) Alagoas State, Brazil September 2011 Lees et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2014
Brachylagus idahoensis ssp. nov.* Columbia Basin pygmy rabbit Columbia Basin, Washington, USA 2011 or after Becker & DeMay, 2016
Garra festai Ammiq garra (fish) Ammiq Marshes, Lebanon 2011 Freyhof et al., 2014
Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus Vietnamese Javan rhino[ceros] Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam 29 April 2010 Brook et al., 2011
Alcelaphus buselaphus tora Tora's hartebeest (mammal) Nubia and W Ethiopia 2010 Gippoliti et al., 2018
Glabrennea silhouettensis (land snail) Silhouette island, Seychelles 2010 Gerlach, 2012
Pipistrellus murrayi Christmas Island pipistrelle (bat) Christmas Island, Indian Ocean 27 August 2009 Lumsden, 2009
Melomys rubicola Bramble Cay melomys (rodent) Bramble Cay, Torres Strait 2009 Woinarski & Burbidge, 2016
Tryonia oasiensis (springsnail) Caroline Spring, Texas, USA 2009 Hershler et al., 2011
Atelopus pinangoi Green and red harlequin toad Venezuela December 2008 Pereira-Muñoz et al., 2015
Asterropteryx gubbina (goby fish) Silhouette island, Seychelles April 2008 Gerlach, 2010
Natrix natrix cypriaca Cyprus grass snake Paralimni Lakes, Cyprus 2008 or later Baier & Wiedl, 2010
Pseudophoxinus syriacus Barada Spring minnow Syria 2008 Freyhof et al., 2014
Claravis geoffroyi Purple-winged ground dove Argentina, Brazil & Paraguay November 2007 Areta et al., 2009
Psephurus gladius Chinese paddlefish China 8 January 2007 Chinese news outlet
Cichlocolaptes mazarbarnetti Cryptic treehunter (bird) Alagoas State, Brazil 2007 Pereira et al., 2014
Telmatobius mendelsoni (amphibian) Peru 2007 De la Riva et al., 2012
Plectostoma charasense (snail) Pahang state, Malaysia 2007 Thorseng, 2014
Bombus franklini Franklin's bumble bee California & Oregon, USA 9 August 2006 Kevan, 2008
Chirostoma bartoni Alberca silverside (fish) Alberca Caldera, Guanajuato, México August 2006 Jelks et al., 2008
Samoana attenuata Cone-shaped tree-snail Society Islands, French Polynesia February 2006 Coote, 2009a
Eleutherodactylus brevirostris Shortsnout robber frog Hispaniola 2006 Hedges & Díaz, 2009
Podarcis filfolensis kieselbachi Selmunett lizard Selmunett Island, Malta 2005 Sciberras & Schembri, 2008
Nymphargus truebae Trueb's Cochran frog Peru 2005 IUCN ASG, 2017c
Dypsis brittiana (palm tree) Madagascar 2005 Rakotoarinivo & Dransfield, 2012
Melamprosops phaeosoma* Po'ouli, Black-faced honeycreeper Maui, Hawaiian Islands 28 November 2004 Song, 2004; Powell, 2008
Senecio berteroi (flowering plant) Robinson Crusoe Island, Juan Fernández Islands, Chile August 2004 Danton and Perrier, 2005
Toxostoma guttatum Cozumel thrasher (bird) Cozumel, México 2004 Curry et al., 2006
Nesiota elliptica* St Helena olive St Helena, Atlantic Ocean December 2003 Lambdon & Ellick, 2016
Eleutherodactylus ranoides (amphibian) Costa Rica & Nicaragua 24 May 2003 Puschendorf et al., 2005
Xenopoecilus poptae Popta's buntingi Lake Poso, Sulawesi, Indonesia March 2003 Parenti & Soeroto, 2003
Nectophrynoides poyntoni (amphibian) Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania Early 2003 Menegon et al., 2004
Atelopus farci Forest stubfoot toad Colombia 2003 IUCN ASG, 2017a
Atelopus simulatus Imitating stubfoot toad Colombia 2003 IUCN ASG 2015
Altiphrynoides osgoodi Osgood's Ethiopian toad Ethiopia 2003 IUCN ASG, 2014
Kubaryia pilikia (land snail) Peleliu, Palau 2003 Rundell, 2012
Bonatea lamprophylla (orchid) Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, St. Lucia 2003 Combrink & Kyle, 2006
Acanthiza pusilla magnirostris King Island brown thornbill (bird) King Island, Tasmania, Australia 2002 Szabo et al., 2012
Lipotes vexillifer* Baiji, Yangtze River dolphin Yangtze River, China 2002 (2007?) Turvey, 2008
Atelopus ardila (amphibian) Colombia & Ecuador 2002 Mueses-Cisneros, 2005
Partula labrusca* Vine tree-snail Raiatea, Society Islands 2002 Coote, 2009b
Cereus estevesii (cactus) Minas Gerais State, Brazil 2002 Braun & Taylor, 2013
Glaucidium mooreorum Pernambuco pygmy owl Pernambuco State, Brazil November 2001 BirdLife, 2016
Libythea collenettei Marquesan snout butterfly Marquesas Islands, French Polynesia 28 August 2001 Kawahara, 2003; Kawahara & Toussaint, 2018
Numenius tenuirostris Slender-billed curlew (bird) Northern Hemisphere April 2001 Buchanan et al., 2010
Xerobdella lecomtei European land leech near Graz, Austria 2001-2005 Kutschera et al., 2007
Atelopus sernai (amphibian) Antioquia Department, Colombia 2001 IUCN ASG, 2017b
Hyperolius ruvuensis (amphibian) Tanzania 2001 Barratt et al., 2017
Argynnis hyperbius inconstans Australian fritillary (butterfly) NSW & Queensl., Australia 2001 Lambkin, 2017
Phyllostegia knudsenii (flowering plant) Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands 2001 Clark, 2015; Wood, 2015
Oxalis hygrophila (clover plant) Western Cape Province, South Africa 2001 Dreyer et al., 2012
Tetramolopium capillare pamakani (plant) Maui, Hawaiian Islands 2001 Federal Register 81(61)
Glyceria drummondii Nangetty grass Western Australia, Australia 2000-2004 Threatened Species Week entry
Vinodolia gluhodolica (snail) Montenegro April 2000 Pešić, 2010
Hesperia meskei pinocayo Rockland grass skipper butterfly Florida, USA 2000 Mongabay
Eutamias atristriatus Penasco least chipmunk New Mexico, USA 2000 Suckling et al., 2004
Conturbatia crenata (land snail) Fregate island, Seychelles 2000 Gerlach, 2009
Samoana minuta (land snail) Fatu Hiva, Marquesas Islands 2000 Gerlach, 2016
Aipysurus apraefrontalis Short-nosed sea snake Northern Australia 2000 Lukoschek et al., 2010
Aipysurus foliosquama1 Leaf-scaled sea snake Northern Australia 2000 A. Lane, pers. comm. August 2011
Rhizopsammia wellingtoni Wellington's solitary coral Galápagos Islands 2000 Hickman et al., 2007
Solanum ruvu (flowering plant) Ruvu Coastal Forest, Morogoro District, Tanzania 2000 Vanishing Flora forum
Capra pyrenaica pyrenaica Bucardo, Pyrenean Ibex Pyrénées Mountains, Europe 6 January 20002 Folch et al., 2009

Notes:

1 A dead specimen may have washed ashore in 2010 (Lukoschek et al. 2013:200).

2 A cloned specimen was born, and died after several minutes, on 30 July 2003 (source).

 

Appendix 1: Most likely extinctions in the near future

 

Scientific name Common name/type Geographical range Number of individuals Source/s
Achatinella apexfulva Oahu tree-snail Oahu, Hawaiian Islands 1 hemaphrodite* source
Garrulax rufifrons slamatensis Rufous-fronted laughingthrush Java, Indonesia 1 female source
Telmatobius yuracare Sehuencas water frog Bolivia 1 male source
Ceratotherium simum cottoni Northern white rhino East and Central Africa 2 females source
Rafetus swinhoei Yangtze giant softshell turtle China

2 males, 1 female, 1 sex unknown

source
Phocoena sinus Vaquita porpoise Gulf of California, Mexico Unknown. Between 0 and 12. source

 

* Possibly now deceased

 

Appendix 2: May be extinct, but confirmation is lacking

Scientific name Common name/type Distribution Last record
Craugastor fleischmanni Fleischmann's robber frog Costa Rica 2 March 2010
Atelopus angelito Toad Colombia 2000

 

 

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