Hesperotestudo wilsoni (Milstead, 1956:168)

Wilson's tortoise



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Geochelone wilsoni Milstead, 1956:168; Testudo wilsoni Milstead, 1956:168


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene (Holocene?)



New Mexico, Oklahoma & Texas, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Milstead, W. W. (1956). Fossil turtles of Friesenhahn Cave, Texas, with the description of a new species of Testudo. Copeia 1956(3): 162-171.


Other references:

Auffenberg, Walter. (1963). Fossil testudinine turtle of Florida genera Geochelone and Floridemys. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 7: 53-97.

Auffenberg, Walter. (1974). Checklist of fossil land tortoises (Testudinidae). Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 18: 121-251.

Esker, Donald A. (2019). Thermoregulation and Dental Isotopes Reveal the Behavior and Environment of Pleistocene Megafauna at Waco Mammoth National Monument. PhD thesis, Baylor University.

Harris, Arthur H. (1987). Reconstruction of Mid Wisconsin Environments in Southern New Mexico. National Geographic Research 3(2): 142-151.

Johnson, E. (1987). Lubbock Lake. Late Quaternary studies on the Southern High Plains. Texas A&M Press, College Station, 179 pp.

Moodie, K. B. and Van Devender, T. R. (1979). Extinction and extirpation in the herpetofauna of the Southern High Plains with emphasis on Geochelone wilsoni (Testudinidae). Herpetologica 35: 198-206.

Powell, Randy L. et al. (2015). Morphometric analysis of carapacial bones: discriminating between two genera of South Texas (North America) Pleistocene tortoises (Testudinidae). Historical Biology. DOI:10.1080/08912963.2015.1088535 [Abstract]

Preston, R. E. (1979). Late Pleistocene cold-blooded vertebrate faunas from the mid-Continental United States. I. Reptilia, Testudines, Crocodilia. University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, Papers on Paleontology, No. 19, 53 pp.

Slaughter, B. H. (1975). Ecological interpretation of the Brown Sand Wedge local fauna, pp.179-192. Wendorf, F. and Hester, J. J. (eds.). In: Late Pleistocene environments of the Southern High Plains. Fort Burgwin Research Center Publication 9: 1-290.

Van Devender, T. R., K. B. Moodie, and A. H. Harris. (1976). The desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizi) in the Pleistocene of the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Herpetologica 32: 298-304.


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