Nestor productus (Gould, 1836:19)

Norfolk Island kaka, Norfolk Island parrot (used by Day, 1981:81), Wilson's parrakeet (archaic), Long-billed parrot (archaic; used by Mathews, 1928:23, pl. 15)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

A complete synonymy taken from (Checklist Committee (OSNZ), 2010:251):

Plyctolophus productus Gould, 1836: Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1836 (4): 19 – no locality = Philip Island, off Norfolk Island (fide Mathews 1928, Birds Norfolk & Lord Howe Islands: 23).; Centrurus productus (Gould); Bonaparte 1856, Naumannia: no 235.; Nestor norfolcensis Pelzeln, 1860: Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wissen., Math.-Naturwissen. Cl., Wien 41: 322, fig. 1 – Norfolk Island.; Nestor productus (Gould); G.R. Gray, 1862: Ibis 4: 230.; Nestor hypopolius; Iredale 1937, Emu 37: 99. Not Psittacus hypopolius J.R. Forster, 1794.; Nestor meridionalis productus (Gould, 1836:19)


Conservation Status


Last record: 1851 (Forshaw, 1981); after 1851 (Day, 1981:82); early 1850's (Hume & Walters, 2012:166)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Norfolk Island & Phillip Island


Biology & Ecology




At least 15 preserved specimens still exist, but possibly more. The last known specimen died in captivity in London, in 1851 (Forshaw, 1981) or after (Day, 1981:82).


[url=]RMNH 110.061[/url] (adult, male)

[url=]RMNH 110.068[/url] (adult, female)



Above: illustration from Mathews (1928).


Above: illustration from Mathews (1928:24).


Above: Norfolk Island Kaka. Nestor productus. From the series: Extinct Birds of New Zealand., 2004, Masterton, by Paul Martinson. Purchased 2006. © Te Papa. CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Te Papa (2006-0010-1/56)



Original scientific description:

Gould, John. (1836). Characters of some new Birds in the Society's Collection, including two new genera, [i]Paradoxornis[/i] and [i]Actinodura[/i]. [i]In[/i] Proceedings of meeting of Zoological Society of London, Feb. 23, 1836. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 38(4): 17-19.


Other references:

BirdLife International. (2012). Nestor productus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 01 September 2012.

BirdLife International. 2016. Nestor productus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22684834A93049105. Accessed on 18 June 2022.

Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Checklist Committee (OSNZ). (2010). Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica (4th ed.). Ornithological Society of New Zealand & Te Papa Press, Wellington. [p. 251]

Christian, Margaret. (2005). Norfolk Island: The Birds. Norfolk Island: Green Eyes Publications. [relevant citation?]

Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Feldegg C. F. von 1842: Catalog der Exotischen Voegel in der Sammlung des Obersten Baron Feldegg zusammengestellt am 31 October 1842. Unpublished manuscript, deposited in the Department of Zoology, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic.

Forbes, H.O. & Robinson, H.C. 1897. Catalogue of the parrots (Psittaci) in the Derby Museum. Bulletin of the Liverpool Museum 1: 5–22

Forshaw, Joseph M. (1969). Australian Parrots. Melbourne: Lansdowne Press. [first edition]

Forshaw, J.M. 1978. Parrots of the World. 2nd (revised) Edn. Illustrated by W.T. Cooper. Melbourne : Lansdowne Edns 616 pp. 158 pls.

Forshaw, Joseph M. (1981). Australian Parrots, second edition. Melbourne: Lansdowne Press.

Forshaw, Joseph M. and Knight, Frank. (2017). Vanished and Vanishing Parrots: Profiling Extinct and Endangered Species. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Forster, J. R. (1844). In: Lichtenstein, Heinrich (ed.). Descriptiones animalium quae in itinere ad Maris australis terras per annos 1772, 1773 et 1774 suscepto collegit, observavit et delineavit Ioannes Reinoldus Forster. Berlin.

Garnett, Stephen (ed.). (1992). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. RAOU Report Number 82. 212 pp.

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Garnett, S. T.; Szabo, J. K.; Dutson, G. 2011. The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Gould, John. (1838). A Synopsis of the Birds of Australia, and the Adjacent Islands. London : J. Gould 73 pls 8 pp.

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Higgins, P.J. (Ed.). 1999. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic birds. Parrots to dollarbird. Volume 4. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. 1248 pp.

Holdaway, Richard N. and Anderson, Atholl. (2001). Avifauna from the Emily Bay settlement site, Norfolk Island: A preliminary account, pp. 85-100. In: Anderson, Atholl and White, Peter (eds.). Records of the Australian Museum, Supplement 27. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Holdaway, Richard N., Worthy, Trevor H. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2001). A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Hull, Arthur Francis Basset. (1909). The birds of Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 34: 636-693, pls. l-liv. [p. 675]

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.

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Mathews, Gregory Macalister. (1928). The Birds of Norfolk & Lord Howe Islands and the Australasian South Polar Quadrant: with additions to "birds of Australia". London: H.F. & G. Witherby. xii + 139 pp, pls 1-45. [p. 23-24, pl. 15]

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