Cyanoramphus erythrotis Wagler, 1832:426

Macquarie (Island) parakeet



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

A complete synonymy taken from (Checklist Committee (OSNZ), 2010:256):

Platycercus erythrotis Wagler, 1832: Abh. Kl. Bayer Akad. Wiss. 1: 526 – Macquarie Island.; Cyanoramphus Erythrotis (Wagler); Bonaparte 1854, Revue Mag. Zool. 6 (2nd series): 153.; Cyanorhamphus novae-zeelandiae erythrotis (Wagler); Reichenow 1881, Journ. für Ornith. 29: 43. Unjustified emendation.; Cyanorhamphus erythrotis (Wagler); Hutton 1904, Index Faunae N.Z.: 29.; Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae erythrotis (Wagler); Mathews & Iredale 1913, Ibis 1 (10th ser.): 425.; Cyanoramphus erythrotis (Wagler); Kearvell et al. 2003, Notornis 50: 28.


Conservation Status


Last record: 1890 (Hume & Walters, 2012:170,171)


Not found by A. Hamilton in 1894 (Hamilton, 1894).



Macquarie Island, New Zealand (Tasmania, Australia, politically)


Biology & Ecology




TMAG ([url=]source[/url])






Original scientific description:

Wagler, J. G. (1832). Monographia Psittacorum. Abhandlungen der mathematisch-physikalischen Classe, Koniglich-Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften 1: 463-750.


Other references:

Anonymous. (1833). List of the animals in the gardens of the Zoological Society: with notices respecting them, and a plan of the gardens, showing the buildings and enclosures in which the animals are kept: June 1833. London: Printed by Richard Taylor. [p. 52]

Boon, Wee Ming; Kearvell, Jonathan C.; Daugherty, Charles H.; & Chambers, Geoffrey K. (2001). Molecular systematics and conservation of kakariki (Cyanoramphus spp.). Science for Conservation 176. Dept of Conservation:Wellington, New Zealand.

Bryant, Sally L. and Jackson, J. (1999). Tasmania's Threatened Fauna Handbook: What, Where and How to Protect Tasmania's Threatened Animals. Threatened Species Unit, DPIWE, Hobart. [p. 220-223]

Chambers, Geoffrey K. & Boon, Wee Ming. (2005). Molecular systematics of Macquarie Island and Reischek's parakeets. Notornis 52(4): 249-250.

Checklist Committee (OSNZ). (2010). Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica (4th ed.). Ornithological Society of New Zealand & Te Papa Press, Wellington. [p. 256]

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Forbes, H.O. (1892). Notes on a species of  Playcercus (P. erythrotis, Wagl.) from Antipodes Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 24: 190-191.

Garnett, Stephen (ed.). (1992). Threatened and Extinct Birds of Australia. RAOU Report Number 82. 212 pp.

Garnett, S. T. and Crowley, G. M. (2000). The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2000. Canberra, ACT: Environment Australia & Birds Australia.

Hamilton, Augustus. (1894). Notes on a visit to Macquarie Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 27: 559-79.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Johnson, Chris N. (2006). Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50 000 Year History. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. x + 278 pp. [p. 213-214]

Jones, E. 1977. Ecology of the Feral Cat Felis catus (L.), (Carnivora: Felidae) on Macquarie Island. Aust. Wildl. Res. 4: 249-262.

Juniper, T. and Parr, M. (1998). Parrots: A Guide to Parrots of the World. Sussex: Pica Press. [relevant reference?]

Kearvell, J.C.; Grant, A.D. & Boon, W.M. 2003. The orange-fronted parakeet (Cyanoramphus malherbi) is a distinct species: a review into its taxonomy and systematic relationships within the genus Cyanoramphus. Notornis 50: 27–35.

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292. [p. 148]

Porter, S. (1934). Notes on [i]Cyanoramphus[/i] parakeets. Avicultural Magazine S4(12): 273-285.

Schodde, R. and Mason, I. J. (1997). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. 37.2. Aves (Columbidae to Caraciidae). Collingwood, Victoria: CSIRO Publishers.

Scofield, R. Paul. (2005). The supposed Macquarie Parakeet in the collection of Canterbury Museum. Notornis 52(2): 117-120.

Scott, J. H. (1882). On the birds of Macquarie Island (title only). Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 14: 561

Scott, J. H. (1883). On the flora and fauna of Macquarie Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 15: 484-93

Taylor, R. H. (1979). How the Macquarie Parakeet became extinct. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 2: 42-45.

Tennyson, Alan J. D. and Scofield, Paul R. (2012). Holocene fossil bird remains from subantarctic Macquarie Island, pp. 26. In: Worthy, Trevor H. and Göhlich, Ursula B. (eds.). 8th International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, Abstracts. 

Tennyson, Alan J. D. and Scofield, Paul R. (2013). Holocene fossil bird remains from subantarctic Macquarie Island, pp. 239-251. In: Göhlich, Ursula B. and Kroh, Andreas (eds.). Paleornithological Research 2013. Proceed. 8th Internat. Meeting Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution. Publisher?

Vigors, N. A. (1825). Descriptions of some rare, interesting, or hitherto uncharacterised subjects of zoology. Zoological Journal 1: 526-542. [529 and supplement]

Woinarski, John C. Z., Legge, Sarah M. and Garnett, Stephen T. (2024). Extinct Australian birds: numbers, characteristics, lessons and prospects. Emu 124(1): 8-20.


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