Conuropsis carolinensis ludoviciana Gmelin, 1788

Carolina parakeet, Carolina paroquet (archaic), Louisiana paroquet (archaic)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Conuropsis carolinensis ludovicianus (emandated) Gmelin, 1788


Conservation Status


Last record: 1910 (BirdLife International, 2012)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



USA (southeastern)


Biology & Ecology




RMNH 110.042 (adult)

RMNH 110.075 (female)

RMNH 110.076 (female)

RMNH 110.077 (male)

RMNH 110.078 (female)




Above: an early (9 June 1811) painting by John James Audubon. Source: Wikimedia Commons.



Original scientific description:

Gmelin, J. F. (1788). Caroli a Linné, Systema naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I, part I. Lipsiae: Impensis Georg. Emmanuel Beer.


Other references:

BirdLife International. (2012). Conuropsis carolinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T22685776A38625653. Downloaded on 11 September 2016.

BirdLife International. 2021. Conuropsis carolinensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T22685776A195444267. Accessed on 01 July 2022.

Burgio, Kevin R., Carlson, C. J. and Bond, A. L. (2018). Georeferenced sighting and specimen occurrence data of the extinct Carolina Parakeet ([i]Conuropsis carolinensis[/i]) from 1564-1944. Biodiversity Data Journal 6: e25280.

Burgio, Kevin R., Carlson, Colin J. and Tingley, Morgan W. (2017). Lazarus ecology: Recovering the distribution and migratory patterns of the extinct Carolina parakeet. Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3135

Burgio, Kevin R. et al. (2018). The mysterious case of the Carolina Parakeet: comparing patterns of range contraction to hypothesized extinction drivers. IOC (International Ornithological Committee) 2018 Conference abstract.

Burgio, Kevin R. et al. (2021). The two extinctions of the Carolina Parakeet Conuropsis carolinensis. Bird Conservation International. [Abstract]

Carlson, C. J. Reconstructing the extinction of the Carolina Parakeet: historical data reveal that two distinct human activities drove two separate subspecies' declines.

Ehrlich, Paul R., Dobkin, David S. and Wheye, Darryl. (1992). Birds in Jeopardy: The Imperiled and Extinct Birds of the United States and Canada, Including Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. 259 pp.

Force, Edith R. (1929). The birds of Tulsa County, Oklahoma and vicinity. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 9: 67-72.

Forshaw, Joseph M. and Knight, Frank. (2017). Vanished and Vanishing Parrots: Profiling Extinct and Endangered Species. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Gelabert, Pere et al. (2019). Evolutionary History, Genomic Adaptation to Toxic Diet, and Extinction of the Carolina Parakeet. Current Biology. doi:

Greenway James C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, Special Publication no 13, 2nd edn. Dover Publications, New York.

Kirchman, J. J., Schirtzinger , E. E., and Wright, T. F. (2012). Phylogenetic relationships of the extinct Carolina Parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis) inferred from DNA sequence data. Auk 129(2): 197-204.

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292. [p. 157]

Oot, Malee. (2023). The Curious Extinction of the Carolina Parakeet: An Avian Cold Case. Mental Floss. Available at: [Accessed 19 September 2023]

Padilla-Jacobo, Gabriela et al. (2023). Origin and diversification of the genera Aratinga, Eupsittula and Psittacara (Aves: Psittacidae). Research Square preprint.

Roberts, D. L. and Jarić, I. (2016). Inferring extinction in North American and Hawaiian birds in the presence of sighting uncertainty. PeerJ 4: e2426.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.


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