Conuropsis carolinensis carolinensis Linnaeus, 1758:97

Carolina parakeet, Carolina paroquet (archaic)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Conurus carolinensis Linnaeus, 1758:97


Conservation Status


Last record: 21 February 1918

IUCN RedList status: Extinct


The last known individual, "Incas", died on the 21st of February, 1918. However, there have been a number of more recent sightings (source).


Last record by state

Kansas: 1904 (Thompson et al., 2011)



USA (eastern)


Biology & Ecology




RMNH 110.043 (adult, male)

RMNH 110.115 (skeleton, male) [subspecies unknown]

ZMA.AVES.3159 (adult mount)


"Specimen: 4 May 1843, along Missouri River, below St. Joseph [...] ANSP 136786" (Robbins, 2018:174)


"there is a specimen in the Central Methodist College (CMC 689) that was taken in Franklin Co. [Missouri] in 1875" (Robbins, 2018:175)


Audie Murphy/American Cotton Museum in Greenville, Texas at least one specimen.




Above: Live captive Carolina parakeet on a cocklebur. Photographer: Robert Wilson Shufeldt c.1900. Source: Wikimedia Commons.


Above: Rare photo of a live Carolina Parakeet named "Doodles", owned by Paul Bartsch, sitting on Mr. Bryan. Photographer: Paul Bartsch 1906. Source: Wikimedia Commons.


Above: ZMA.AVES.3159, sex unknown, collected c.1870. Photograph: Huub Veldhuijzen van Zanten/Naturalis Biodiversity Center. Released under CC BY-SA 3.0 license.


Above: Carolina parakeets by John James Audubon (1833). Source: Wikimedia Commons.


Above: illustration of a Carolina parakeet ("Carolina parrot") from Greene & Dutton (1884).


Above: Dying Words (2008) by Flickr user 'La Petite Claudine'. Released under a CC BY-SA 2.0 license.



Original scientific description:

Linnaeus, Carolus. (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius).


Other references:

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Atwater, C. (1838). A History of the State of Ohio, Natural and Civil. Glezen and Shepard, Cincinnati.

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Baird, S.F., Brewer, T.M., Ridgway, R. 1974. History of North American Birds Volume II. Arno Press, Inc: New York.

Bartsch,  P., transl.  (1898). The breeding of the Carolina paroquet in captivity, by Dr. Nowotny. Auk 15(1): 28-32.

Bartsch, P. (1952).  Doodles--a pet Carolina paroquet; 1902-1914. Atlantic Nat., 8:  18-20.

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BirdLife International. (2008). Conuropsis carolinensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. ( Downloaded on 04 February 2012.

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