Charmosyna toxopei Siebers, 1930

Blue-fronted lorikeet, Buru lorikeet



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Hypocharmosyna toxopei Siebers, 1930


Conservation Status

Extant or rediscovered?

Last record: 1920's

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered



Buru, South Maluku, Indonesia


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Siebers, H. C. (1930). Fauna Buruana: Aves. Treubia 7(suppl.): 165-303.


Other references:

BirdLife International. (2001). Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.

BirdLife International. (2012). Charmosyna toxopei. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 22 August 2013.

BirdLife International. (2014). Species factsheet: Charmosyna toxopei. Downloaded from on 26/11/2014.

Collar, N. (1997). Blue-fronted Lorikeet (Charmosyna toxopei). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.) (2014). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from on 26 November 2014).

Collar, Nigel J. and Sykes, Brian R. (2009). Lost, found and saved—OBC conservation: the next 25 years. BirdingASIA 11: 41-46.

Forshaw, J. M. (1989). Parrots of the world. Third (revised) edition. London: Blandford Press.

Forshaw, Joseph M. and Knight, Frank. (2017). Vanished and Vanishing Parrots: Profiling Extinct and Endangered Species. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Jepson, P. (1993). Recent ornithological observations from Buru. Kukila 6: 85-109.

Marsden, S. J., Jones, M. J., Linsley, M. D., Mead, C. and Hounsome, M. V. (1997). The conservation status of the restricted-range lowland birds of Buru, Indonesia. Bird Conserv. Internatn. 7: 213-233.

Robson, C., Roddis, S., Sykes, M. and Sykes, B. (2015). From the field. BirdingASIA 23: 138-144.

Smiet, F. (1985). Notes on the field status and trade of Moluccan parrots. Biol. Conserv. 34: 181-194.

Stattersfield, A. J., Crosby, M. J., Long, M. J. and Wege, D. C. (1998) Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for biodiversity conservation. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International (Conservation Series 7). [relevant citation?]

Sujatnika, Jepson, P., Soehartono, T., Crosby, M. and Mardiastuti, A. (1995). Conserving Indonesian biodiversity: the Endemic Bird Area approach. Bogor: BirdLife International–Indonesia Programme. [relevant citation?]

White, C. M. N. and Bruce, M. D. (1986). The birds of Wallacea (Sulawesi, the Moluccas and Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia): an annotated check-list. London: British Ornithologists’ Union (Checklist 7).


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