Ara guadeloupensis Clark, 1905

Guadeloupe macaw, Lesser Antillean macaw



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

This species is no longer recognised as valid by the IUCN (fide Wiley & Kirwan, 2013).


Conservation Status

A hypothetical species

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Guadeloupe (French overseas department), Lesser Antilles, Caribbean


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Clark, A. H. (1905). The Lesser Antillean macaws. Auk 22(3): 266-273.


Other references:

BirdLife International. (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge.

BirdLife International. (2008). Ara guadeloupensis. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 11 July 2011.

Du Tertre, J.-B. 1667. Histoire générale des Antilles habitées par les Français, vol. 2. Thomas Iolly, Paris.

Gala, Monica and Lenoble, Arnaud. (2015). Evidence of the former existence of an endemic macaw in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Journal of Ornithology. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-015-1221-6.

Greenway James C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, Special Publication no 13, 2nd edn. Dover Publications, New York.

Guilhiermoz, P. 1913. De l’équivalence des anciennes mesures. A propos d’une publication récente. Bibliothèque de l’école des chartes 74: 267-328.

Hume, J.P., and M. Walters. 2012. Extinct Birds. T & AD Poyser, London.

Labat, J.B. 1722. Nouveau voyage aux isles de l’Amérique. Guillaume Cavelier, Paris.

Lenoble, Arnaud. (2015). The Violet Macaw ([i]Anodorhynchus purpurascens[/i] Rothschild, 1905) did not exist. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 28: 17-21.

Olson, Storrs L. and Maíz López, E. J. (2008). New evidence of Ara autochthones from an archeological site in Puerto Rico: a valid species of West Indian macaw of unknown geographical origin (Aves: Psittacidae). Caribbean Journal of Science 44(2): 215-222.

Rothschild, Lionel Walter Rothschild. (1907). Extinct birds: an attempt to write in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times, that is within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. XXIX + 243 pp. [p. 54]

Snyder, N.F.R., J.W. Wiley, and C.B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural History and Conservation of the Puerto Rican Parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology, Los Angeles.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Wiley, J.W., R.S. Gnam, S.E. Koenig, A. Dornelly, X. Gálvez, P.E. Bradley, T. White, M. Zamore, P.R. Reillo, and D. Anthony. 2004. Status and conservation of the family Psittacidae in the West Indies. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 17: 94-154.

Wiley, James W. and Kirwan, Guy M. (2013). The extinct macaws of the West Indies, with special reference to Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor. The Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 133(2): 125-156. [automatic download]

Williams, Mathew I. and Steadman, David W. (2001). The historic and prehistoric distribution of parrots (Psittacidae) in the West Indies, pp. 175-189. In: Woods, Charles A. and Sergile, Florence E. (eds.). Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.



I thank Daniel Jimenez for correcting the distribution data, from Guadeloupe (Mexico) to Guadeloupe (French overseas department) in the Lesser Antilles.


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