Ara erythrocephala Gosse, 1847

Jamaican Green-and-yellow macaw, Green and yellow macaw



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Anadorhynchus caerulens by Gmelin?


This species is no longer recognised as valid by the IUCN fide (Wiley & Kirwan, 2013).


Conservation Status

A hypothetical species

Last record: 1810 or 1842 (Day, 1981: 74)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Gosse, P. H. (1847). The Birds of Jamaica. London: John van Voorst. [p. 261-262]

Other references:

BirdLife International. (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge.

BirdLife International. (2012). Ara erythrocephala. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 20 August 2013.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Greenway James C. (1967). Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection, Special Publication no 13, 2nd edn. Dover Publications, New York.

Rothschild, Walter. (1905). Notes on extinct parrots from the West Indies. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 16: 13-15.

Rothschild, Lionel Walter. (1907). Extinct birds: an attempt to write in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times, that is within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. XXIX + 243 pp. [p. 53, pl. 12]

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Wiley, James W. and Kirwan, Guy M. (2013). The extinct macaws of the West Indies, with special reference to Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor. The Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 133(2): 125-156. [automatic download]

Williams, Mathew I. and Steadman, David W. (2001). The historic and prehistoric distribution of parrots (Psittacidae) in the West Indies, pp. 175-189. In: Woods, Charles A. and Sergile, Florence E. (eds.). Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.


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