Anodorhynchus glaucus Vieillot, 1816

Glaucous macaw



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Ara glauca Vieillot, 1816


Conservation Status


Last record: 1951 (direct observation); 1960's (local report)

IUCN status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)


Recent reports of this species have been documented by (López-Lanús et al., 2009).



Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay & Uruguay


Biology & Ecology




[url=]RMNH 110.103[/url] (adult, skin)

[url=]RMNH 110.114[/url] (skeleton)



Above: Cyanopsitta spixii (Spix's macaw) on the left, with Anodorhynchus glaucus (Glaucous macaw) on the right. Illustration originally published in (Russ, 1898). Source: Teixeira & Papavero, 2016.


Above: Glaucous macaw at Buenos Aires Zoo in 1936. Source: Teixeira & Papavero (2016)





Original scientific description:

(Vieillot) 1816 Nouv.Dict.Hist.Nat.nouv.ed. 2 p.259

Other references:

Akcakaya, H. R.; Keith, D. A.; Burgman, M.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Hoffmann, M.; Regan, H. M.; Harrison, I.; Boakes, E. 2017. Inferring extinctions III: a cost-benefit framework for listing extinct species. Biological Conservation 214: 336-342.

Alvarenga, Herculano. (2007). Anodorhynchus glaucus e A. leari (Psittaciformes, Psittacidae): osteologia, registros fósseis e antiga distribuição geográfica. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 15(3): 427-432.

ANÔNIMO. 1879. [Mr. Sclater exhibited a skin of Ara glauca]. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, London, 1879: 551.

Begazo, A., Munn, C., Castelino, M. and Yamashita, C. (Undated) Humans caused the first proven extinction of a South American land bird: a post mortem for the Glaucous Macaw Anodorhynchus glaucus. First draft.

Bertonatti, Claudio. (2001). Los últimos días del guacamayo azul. Vida Silvestre July/August 2001, Nº 78, pages 44-50.

BirdLife International. (2000). Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge.

BirdLife International. (2012a). Anodorhynchus glaucus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 08 July 2012.

BirdLife International. (2012b). Species factsheet: Anodorhynchus glaucus. Downloaded from on 08/07/2012.

BirdLife International. 2019. Anodorhynchus glaucus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2019: e.T22685527A154380861. Accessed on 06 July 2022.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Lowe, Stephen, Martin, Rob W., Symes, Andy, Westrip, James R. S. and Wheatley, Hannah. (2018a). Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Stattersfield, A. J. and Brooks, T. M. (2006). Going or gone: defining ‘Possibly Extinct’ species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126A: 7-24.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Wheatley, Hannah, Lowe, Stephen, Westrip, James R. S., Symes, Andy and Martin, Rob W. (2018b). Data for: Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Mendeley Data, V1, doi: 10.17632/vvjhpmyxb4.1

Collar, N. J., Gonzaga, L. P., Krabbe, N., Madroño Nieto, A., Naranjo, L. G., Parker, T. A. & Wege, D. C. (1992) Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird Preservation.

Flower, H. J. (1879). Mr. Sclater exhibited a skin of Ara glauca (Vieill.) from Corrientes … Proceedings Zoological Society of London, London, 1879 (3): 551.

Forshaw, Joseph M. and Knight, Frank. (2017). Vanished and Vanishing Parrots: Profiling Extinct and Endangered Species. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292. [pp. 152-153]

López-Lanús, Bernabé, Laverde, Oscar, Omena jr., Reynier and Olarte, Luis G. (2009). Lack of evidence for the presence of macaws of the Anodorhynchus genus in the Colombian-Brazilian river basin of the Vaupés. Hornero 24(1): 37-41.

Martin, Thomas E., Bennett, Gareth C., Fairbairn, Andrew J. and Mooers, A. Ø. (2023). ‘Lost’ taxa and their conservation implications. Animal Conservation 26(1): 14-24. [Appendix S2 (1617 taxa not seen >10 years); Appendix S3 (562 taxa not seen >50 years)]

Mittermeier, John C. et al. (2022). Fantastic lost birds and how you can help find them: an updated gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding 31: 25-32.

Piacentini, Vítor de Q. et al. (2015). Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee / Lista comentada das aves do Brasil pelo Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 23(2): 91-298.

Pittman, Tony. (1992). The Glaucous Macaw - Does it still exist? Parrot Society Magazine 26(11): 366-371.

Pittman, Tony. (1997). Some new information on the Glaucous Macaw. Parrot Society Magazine, 1997, Vol. XXXI. [incomplete citation]

Pittman, Tony. (1997/8). The Glaucous Macaw - Dead or alive? The continuing saga. Just Parrots, 1997/8, Issue 19. [incomplete citation]

Ridgely, Robert S. (1980). The Current Distribution and Status of Mainland Neotropical Parrots. Conservation of New World Parrots (Pages 238-40), the Proceedings of the ICBP Parrot Working Group Meeting on St. Lucia in 1980.

Rodríguez, Oscar et al. (2019). Status and distribution of Paraguayan macaws (Aves: Psittacidae) with a new country record. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 59:  e20195960.

Russ, Karl. (1898). Die sprechenden Papageien. Ein hand- und Lehrbuch. Magdeburg, Creutz’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

Silva, Antonio H. (1989). A Monograph of Endangered Parrots. Silvio Mattachione & Company.

Teixeira, Dante Martins and Papavero, Nelson. (2016). Um breve histórico das araras do gênero Anodorhynchus Spix, 1824 (Aves, Psittaciformes). Arquivos de Zoologia 47(1): 1-32.

Tobias, Joseph A., Butchart, Stuart H. M. and Collar, Nigel J. (2006). Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding [2006]: 4-22.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Voous, K. H. (1965). Specimens of Lear's macaw in the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. L'oiseau et la revue française d'ornithologie [incomplete citation]

Yamashita, C.; Valle, M. De P. (1993). On the linkage between Anodorhynchus macaws and palm nuts, and the extinction of Glaucous Macaw. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 113: 53-60.


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