Amazona violacea Gmelin, 1789 (Boddaert, 1783:25?)

Guadeloupe amazon, Guadeloupe parrot



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Psittacus violaceus Gmelin, 1789


This is a hypothetical species based upon the accounts of Du Tertre and Labat (Day, 1981:78). Labat described the Guadeloupe and Martinique forms of Amazon as virtually the same, indicating either that he was confused as (Ibid.) suggests, or that its distribution covered both islands, perhaps with each island harbouring an endemic subspecies, which would account nicely for the minor differences in description given by Labat of the two putatively different forms. A tibiotarsus found on Marie Galante may refer to this species (Williams & Steadman, 2001: 185-6).


Conservation Status

A hypothetical species

Last record: 1779 (BirdLife International, 2012)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Guadeloupe (& Marie Galante?), West Indies


Biology & Ecology




There are no known preserved specimens in museums or private collections.






Original scientific description:

Gmelin, J. F. (1789). Aves Anseres. Tome I. Pars II. In: Gmelin J.F. (Ed.) Caroli a Linnaei Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae. 1(2): 501-1032.


Other references:

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

BirdLife International. (2012). Amazona violacea. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 19 August 2013.

BirdLife International. (2021). Amazona violacea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T22728701A194911615. Accessed on 02 July 2022.

Boddaert, P. (ed.). (1783). Table des planches enluminéez d’histoire naturelle de M. D’Aubenton. Avec les dénominations de MM. de Buff on, Brisson, Edwards, Linnaeus et Latham. Utrecht, 58 p. (réédité à l’identique par Tegetmeier W. B. en 1873 : Reprint of Boddaert’s Table des Planches enluminéez d’Histoire Naturelle. Tegetmeir, Londres).

Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Clark, A. H. (1905). The West Indian parrots. The Auk 22: 337-344.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press. [includes illustration on p. 79]

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

del Hoyo, J., et al. (2020) Birds of the World. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA

Lenoble, Arnaud. (2015). The Violet Macaw (Anodorhynchus purpurascens Rothschild, 1905) did not exist. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 28: 17-21.

Olson, Storrs L. and Maíz López, E. J. (2008). New evidence of Ara autochthones from an archeological site in Puerto Rico: a valid species of West Indian macaw of unknown geographical origin (Aves: Psittacidae). Caribbean Journal of Science 44(2): 215-222.

Rothschild, Lionel Walter. (1907). Extinct birds: an attempt to write in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times, that is within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. XXIX + 243 pp. [p. 57, pl. 17]

Sayol, Ferran, Steinbauer, Manuel J., Blackburn, Tim M., Antonelli, Alexandre and Faurby, Søren. (2020). Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds. Science Advances 6(49): eabb6095. [Supplementary Material (Data File S1)]

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Voisin, Claire and Voisin, Jean-François. (2008). Liste des types d’oiseaux des collections du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle de Paris. 16: Perroquets (Psittacidae). Zoosystema 30(2): 463-499.

Williams, Mathew I. and Steadman, David W. (2001). The historic and prehistoric distribution of parrots (Psittacidae) in the West Indies, pp. 175-189. In: Woods, Charles A. and Sergile, Florence E. (eds.). Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.


<< Back to the Psittaciformes (Cockatoos and Parrots) database