Alexandrinus exsul A. Newton, 1872

Newton's parakeet, Rodrigues parakeet, Rodriques ring-necked parakeet, Rodriguez ring-necked parakeet (Day, 1981:69)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Psittacula exsul A. Newton, 1872; Palaeornis exsul Newton, 1872; Palæornis exsul Newton, 1872


Conservation Status


Last record: 30 September 1874 (Slater, 1879); 1875 (Caldwell, 1875; Newton & Newton, 1876); 14 August 1875 (source)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Rodrigues, Mascarene Islands


Biology & Ecology







Source: Wikimedia Commons.



Original scientific description:

Newton, Alfred. (1872). On an undescribed bird from the island of Rodrigues. Ibis Ser. 3, no. 2: 30-34.


Other references:

Alby, J., & Serviable, M (eds.) (1993) Abbé Alexandre-Gui Pingré: Courser Venus, voyage scientifique à Rodrigue en 1761. Ste.Clothilde, Réunion: Ars Terres Créoles & Rose-Hill, Mauritius: Editions Ocean Indien. 123pp.

BirdLife International. (2012). Psittacula exsul. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 19 May 2013.

BirdLife International. 2016. Psittacula exsul. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22685465A93074571. Accessed on 18 June 2022.

Braun, Michael P. et al. (2019). A molecular phylogeny of the genus Psittacula sensu lato (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae: Psittacula, Psittinus, Tanygnathus, †Mascarinus) with taxonomic implications. Zootaxa 4563(3): 547-562. [Abstract]

Brooks, T. 2000. Extinct species. In: BirdLife International (ed.), Threatened Birds of the World, pp. 701-708. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona and Cambridge, U.K.

Caldwell, J. (1875). Notes on the zoology of Rodriguez. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London [1875]: 644-647.

Cheke, Anthony S. (1987). An ecological history of the Mascarene Islands, with particular reference to extinctions and introductions of land vertebrates, pp. 5-89. In: Diamond, A. W. (ed.). Studies of Mascarene Island Birds. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Cheke, Anthony S. (2013). Extinct birds of the Mascarenes and Seychelles - a review of the causes of extinction in the light of an important new publication on extinct birds. Phelsuma 21: 4-19.

Cheke, Anthony S. (2019). Unpublished material from the Transit of Venus expedition to Rodrigues in 1874 - Henry Slater’s sketchbook and notes on the birds of Rodrigues. Journal of the Royal Society of Arts & Sciences of Mauritius 1: 48-56,114-116.

Cheke, Anthony S. and Hume, Julian Pender. (2008). Lost Land of the Dodo: An Ecological History of Mauritius, Réunion & Rodrigues. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 464 pp.

Cowles, G. S. 1987. The fossil record. In: Diamond, A.W. (ed.), Studies of Mascarene Island birds, pp. 90-100. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.

Day, David. (1981). The Doomsday Book of Animals: A Natural History of Vanished Species. New York, N.Y.: The Viking Press.

Dupon, J. F. (1973). Relation de l'isle Rodrigue. Texte attribué à Tafforet, circa 1726. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Arts & Science Mauritius 4: 1-16.

Forshaw, Joseph M. (2010). Parrots of the world. London: Christopher Helm.

Forshaw, Joseph M. and Knight, Frank. (2017). Vanished and Vanishing Parrots: Profiling Extinct and Endangered Species. Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing.

Fuller, Errol. (1988). Extinct Birds. New York: Facts on File Publications. 256 pp.

Greenway, J. C. Jnr. (1958). Extinct and vanishing birds of the world. Special Publication 13. American Committee for International Wild Life Protection. New York, USA.

Günther, A. and Newton, Edward. (1879). The Extinct Birds of Rodriguez. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 168: 423-437, plates 41-43.

Hume, Julian Pender. (2007). Reappraisal of the parrots (Aves: Psittacidae) from the Mascarene Islands, with comments on their ecology, morphology, and affinities. Zootaxa 1513: 1-76.

Hume, Julian Pender and van Grouw, Hein. (2014). Colour aberrations in extinct and endangered birds. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 134(3): 168-193.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.

Jackson, Hazel et al. (In Press, 2015). Micro-evolutionary diversification among Indian Ocean parrots: temporal and spatial changes in phylogenetic diversity as a consequence of extinction and invasion. Ibis. DOI: 10.1111/ibi.12275 [Abstract]

Leguat, F. (1708). Voyage et avantures de François Leguat et de ses compagnons en deux isles désertes des Indes Orientales. 2 vols. Amsterdam Lorme.

Newton, A. (1875). A note on Palaeornis exsul. Ibis, ser.  3, 5: 343-344.

Newton, A. and Newton, E. (1876). On the Psittaci of the Mascarene Islands. Ibis S3(6): 281-289.

North-Coombes, A. (1971). The Island of Rodrigues. Mauritius: The Standard Printing Establishment.

Oustalet, E. (1897). Notice sur la faune ornithologique ancienne et moderne des Iles Mascareignes et en particulier de I’lle Maurice. Annales des Sciences naturelles (Zoologie), (8)3: 1-128.

Peters, J. L. (1937) Check-list of the Birds of the World (III). Cambridge Masschusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. 311 pp.

Pingré, Abbé. (1761 [Anonymous 1993]) Courser Venus Voyage Scientifique á I’lle Rodrigue 1761. Collection Mascarin, Editions de l'Océan Indien, 123 pp.

Rothschild, Lionel Walter. (1907). Extinct birds: an attempt to write in one volume a short account of those birds which have become extinct in historical times, that is within the last six or seven hundred years: to which are added a few which still exist, but are on the verge of extinction. London: Hutchinson & Co. XXIX + 243 pp. [p. 65, pl. 19]

Salvadori, T. (1891) Catalogue of the Psittaci, or parrots, in the collection of the British Museum Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum Vol. XX. London British Museum (Natural History).

Sayol, Ferran, Steinbauer, Manuel J., Blackburn, Tim M., Antonelli, Alexandre and Faurby, Søren. (2020). Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds. Science Advances 6(49): eabb6095. [Supplementary Material (Data File S1)]

Slater, Henry H. (1879). Reports on the proceedings of the naturalists. 2. Report of Henry H. Slater, Esq., B.A. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 168: 294-295.

Tafforet, J. (c.1726). Relation de l'Isle Rodrigue. Anonymous MS in the Archives Nationales, Paris.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.


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