Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Stegomastodon platensis Ameghino, 1888; Niomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888)


Conservation Status


Last record: Early Holocene (Mothé et al., 2017)



"South America (from lowlands to highlands and from east to west coasts)" (Mothé et al. 2017)


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Ameghino F., 1888, Rápidas diagnosis de algunos mamíferos fósiles nuevos de la República Argentina: Buenos Aires, Editorial Coni, 17 pp.


Other references:

Alberdi, M. T. , Cerdeño, E., and Prado, J. L. (2008). Stegomastodon platensis (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae) en el Pleistoceno de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Ameghiniana 45: 257-271.

Alberdi, María T. and Prado, José L. (2022). Diversity of the fossil gomphotheres from South America. Historical Biology 34(8): 1685-1691.

Araújo, Thaísa et al. (2021). Species distribution modeling reveals the ecological niche of extinct megafauna from South America. Quaternary Research. [Abstract]

Asevedo, Lidiane et al. (2020). Palynological analysis of dental calculus from Pleistocene proboscideans of southern Brazil: A new approach for paleodiet and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 540: 109523. [Abstract]

Asevedo, Lidiane et al. (2021). Diversity of Pleistocene megamammals from southern Amazon, Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences
Volume 112(1): 103552.

Baleka, Sina et al. (2021). Revisiting proboscidean phylogeny and evolution through total evidence and palaeogenetic analyses including Notiomastodon ancient DNA. iScience 25: 103559.

Barbosa, Fernando Henrique de Souza, de Araújo-Júnior, Hermínio Ismael, Mothé, Dimila and Avilla, Leonardo dos Santos. (In Press, 2016). Osteological diseases in an extinct Notiomastodon (Mammalia, Proboscidea) population from the Late Pleistocene of Brazil. Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Barnosky A.D., Lindsey E.L. 2010 Timing of Quaternary megafaunal extinction in South America in relation to human arrival and climate change. Quaternary International 217(1–2), 10-29.

Bombin, M., 1976, Modelo paleoecológico evolutivo para o Neoquaternário da região da Campanha-Oeste do Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil), A Formação Touro Passo, seu conteúdo fossilífero e a pedogênese pós-deposicional: Comunicações do Museu de Ciências da PUCRS, 15, 1- 90.

Buckley, Michael et al. (2019). A molecular phylogeny of the extinct South American gomphothere through collagen sequence analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews 224: 105882. [Abstract]

Dantas, Mário A. T. (2022). Estimating the body mass of the Late Pleistocene megafauna from the South America Intertropical Region and a new regression to estimate the body mass of extinct xenarthrans. Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Dantas, Mário André Trindade, Cherkinsky, Alexander, Bocherens, Hervé, Drefahl, Morgana, Bernardes, Camila and França, Lucas de Melo. (2017). Isotopic paleoecology of the Pleistocene megamammals from the Brazilian Intertropical Region: Feeding ecology (δ13C), niche breadth and overlap. Quaternary Science Reviews 170: 152-163. [Abstract]

Dantas, T.M.A., Xavier, M.C.T. , Franca, L.M. , Cozzuol, M.A. , Ribeiro, A.S. , Figuerido, A.M.G. , Kinoshita, A. , and Baffa, O. (2013). A review time scale and potential geographic distribution of Niomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888) in the Late Pleistocene of South America. Quaternary International 317: 73-79.

Dantas, Mário André Trindade et al. (2020). Isotopic paleoecology (δ13C) from mammals from IUIU/BA and paleoenvironmental reconstruction (δ13C, δ18O) for the Brazilian intertropical region through the late Pleistocene. Quaternary Science Reviews 242: 106469. [Abstract]

Dantas, Mário André Trindade et al. (In Press, 2021). Annual isotopic diet (δ13C, δ18O) of Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888) from Brazilian Intertropical Region. Quaternary International. [Abstract]

El Adli, Joseph J. et al. (2017). First analysis of life history and season of death of a South American gomphothere. Quaternary International 443(A): 180-188. [Abstract]

Encina R.L., Alberdi M.T. 2011 An updated taxonomic view on the family Gomphotheriidae (Proboscidea) in the final Pleistocene of south-central Chile. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 262(43-57).

Ferrero B., Brandoni D., Noriega J.I., Carlini A.A. 2007 Mamíferos de la Formación El Palmar (Pleistoceno tardío) de la provincia de Entre Ríos, Argentina. Revista del Museo 9(2), 109-117.

Gallo, V. et al. (2013). Distributional patterns of herbivore megamammals during the Late Pleistocene of South America. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 85(2): 533-546.

González-Guarda, Erwin et al. (2017). Late Pleistocene ecological, environmental and climatic reconstruction based on megafauna stable isotopes from northwestern Chilean Patagonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 170: 188-202. [Abstract]

González-Guarda, Erwin et al. (2017). Multiproxy evidence for leaf-browsing and closed habitats in extinct proboscideans (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from Central Chile. PNAS. doi:

Lessa, Carlos Micael Bonfim et al. (2021). Isotopic paleoecology (δ13C, δ18O) of two megamammals assemblages from the late pleistocene of Brazilian intertropical region. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 112(1): 103576. [Abstract]

Lindsey, Emily L. and Lopez, R., Eric X. (2015). Tanque Loma, a new late-Pleistocene megafaunal tar seep locality from southwest Ecuador. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 57: 61-82.

Lopes, Renato Pereira et al. (2021). The Santa Vitória Alloformation: an update on a Pleistocene fossil-rich unit in Southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology 51(1): e2020065.

Mothé, Dimila et al. (2012). Taxonomic revision of the Quaternary gomphotheres (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) from the South American lowlands. Quaternary International 276-277: 2-7. [Abstract]

Mothé, Dimila et al. (2017). Sixty years after ‘The mastodonts of Brazil’: The state of the art of South American proboscideans (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae). Quaternary International 443(A): 52-64. [Abstract]

Mothé, Dimila, Avilla, L. S. et al. (2020). An artifact embedded in an extinct proboscidean sheds new light on human-megafaunal interactions in the Quaternary of South America. Quaternary Science Reviews 229: 106125. [Abstract]

Mothé, Dimila, Ferretti, Marco P. and Avilla, Leonardo S. (2017). Running Over the Same Old Ground: Stegomastodon Never Roamed South America. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. doi:10.1007/s10914-017-9392-y [Abstract]

Mothé, Dimila, de Oliveira, Karoliny et al. (2021). The micro from mega: Dental calculus description and the first record of fossilized oral bacteria from an extinct proboscidean. International Journal of Paleopathology 33: 55-60. [Abstract]

Nogueira, Fabio C. S. et al. (In Press, 2021). Ancient enamel peptides recovered from the South American Pleistocene species Notiomastodon platensis and Myocastor cf. coypus. Journal of Proteomics. doi: [Abstract]

Omena, Érica Cavalcante et al. (2020). Late Pleistocene meso-megaherbivores from Brazilian Intertropical Region: isotopic diet (δ13C), niche differentiation, guilds and paleoenvironmental reconstruction (δ13C, δ18O). Historical Biology.

Pansani, Thaís Rabito et al. (2019). Isotopic paleoecology (δ13C, δ18O) of Late Quaternary megafauna from Mato Grosso do Sul and Bahia States, Brazil. Quaternary Science Reviews 221: 105864. [Abstract]

Pérez-Crespo, Víctor A., Prado, José L., Alberdi, Maria T., Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín and Johnson, Eileen. (2016). Diet and Habitat for Six American Pleistocene Proboscidean Species Using Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotopes. Ameghiniana 53(1): 39-51. [Abstract]

Prado, J. L., Alberdi, M. T., Azanza, B., Sánchez, B. and Frassinetti, D. (2001). The Pleistocene Gomphotheres (Proboscidea) from South America: diversity, habitats and feeding ecology, pp. 337-340. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Prado J.L., Alberdi M.T., Azanza B., Sánchez B., Frassinetti D. 2005 The Pleistocene Gomphotheriidae (Proboscidea) from South America. Quaternary International 126-128: 21-30.

Prates, Luciano and Perez, S. Ivan. (2021). Late Pleistocene South American megafaunal extinctions associated with rise of Fishtail points and human population. Nature Communications 12: 2175.

Rosa, M., Scherer, C. S. ., & Avilla, L. dos S. (2020). The fossil Proboscidea (Mammalia) from Bahia State, Brazil: taxonomy, description, and new locations. Revista Brasileira De Paleontologia 23(3): 194-208.

Seymour, Kevin L. (2015). Perusing Talara: Overview of the Late Pleistocene Fossils from the Tar Seeps of Peru, pp. 97-109. In: Harris, John M. (ed.). La Brea and Beyond: The Paleontology of Asphalt-Preserved Biotas. Los Angeles, California: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series No. 42. 174 pp.

da Silva, Juliana de Almeida et al. (2019). Late Pleistocene meso-megamammals from Anagé, Bahia, Brazil: Taxonomy and isotopic paleoecology (δ13C). Journal of South American Earth Sciences 96: 102362. [Abstract]

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

de Souza Barbosa, Fernando Henrique et al. (2017). Osteological diseases in an extinct Notiomastodon (Mammalia, Proboscidea) population from the Late Pleistocene of Brazil. Quaternary International 443(A): 228-232. [Abstract]

Zorro-Luján, Catalina María et al. (2022). Vertebral lesions in Notiomastodon platensis, Gomphotheriidae, from Anolaima, Colombia. Quaternary Research.


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