Stegodon trigonocephalus Martin, 1887



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene





Biology & Ecology










G. D. van den Bergh. 1999. The Late Neogene elephantoid-bearing faunas of Indonesia and their palaeozoogeographic implications. A study of the terrestrial faunal succession of Sulawesi, Flores and Java, including evidence for early hominid dispersal east of Wallace's Line. Scripta Geologica 117:1-419.

Van Den Bergh G.D., Awe R.D., Morwood M.J., Sutikna T., Jatmiko, Wahyu Saptomo E. (2008). The youngest stegodon remains in Southeast Asia from the Late Pleistocene archaeological site Liang Bua, Flores, Indonesia. Quaternary International 182(1), 16-48.

van den Bergh G.D., de Vos J., Sondaar P.Y. 2001 The Late Quaternary palaeogeography of mammal evolution in the Indonesian Archipelago. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 171(3-4): 385-408.

Louys J., Curnoe D., Tong H. 2007 Characteristics of Pleistocene megafauna extinctions in Southeast Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 243(1-2): 152-173.

H. F. Osborn. 1936. The Proboscidea 1 & 2:1-1675

Puspaningrum, Mika R. et al. (2020). Isotopic reconstruction of Proboscidean habitats and diets on Java since the Early Pleistocene: Implications for adaptation and extinction. Quaternary Science Reviews 228: 106007. [Abstract]


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