Palaeoloxodon namadicus Falconer & Cautley, 1846

Asian straight-tusked elephant



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Elephas namadicus Falconer & Cautley, 1846


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene (56 ± 5 ka or younger)



India to Japan


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Falconer, Hugh and Cautley, P. T. (1845-1849). Fauna antiqua sivalensis, being the fossil zoology of the Sewalik Hills, in the north of India. – 1845: Part I., 1846: Part II., 1847: Part III-VIII., 1849: Part IX., Smith Elder and Co., London. 

Other references:

Davies, P. and Lister, A. M. (2001). Palaeoloxodon cypriotes, the dwarf elephant of Cyprus: size and scaling comparisons with P. falconeri (Sicily-Malta) and mainland P. antiquus. In The World of Elephants - International Congress (pp. 479-480. Rome.

Dong, Wei and Zhang, Yingqi. (2022). Biochronologic sequences of the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China and correlations with numeric dating. Quaternary Sciences 42(5): 1227-1246.

Falconer, H. (1859). Descriptive Catalogue of the Fossil Remains of Vertebrata from the Siwalik Hills, the Nerbudda, Perim Island, etc., in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 261 pp. Printed by C.B. Lewis, Baptist mission press, Calcutta. [relevant reference?]

Jukar, A. M., Lyons, S. K., Wagner, P. J. and Uhen, M. D. (2020). Late Quaternary extinctions in the Indian Subcontinent. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. doi: 110137 DOI: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2020.110137 [Abstract]

Larramendi, Asier. (2016). Shoulder height, body mass, and shape of proboscideans. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 61(3): 537-574.

Louys J., Curnoe D., Tong H. 2007 Characteristics of Pleistocene megafauna extinctions in Southeast Asia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 243(1-2): 152-173.

Maurya, Sakshi et al. (2022). Stable Isotopic studies of the herbivorous mammals from the Marginal Ganga Plain, India: implication for the palaeo-environmental reconstruction. Geological Journal 57(9): 3935-3948.

Meshram, S. N. and Sonakia, A. (2006). Fossil femur of a giant elephant (cf. Elephas namadicus) from middle Pleistocene, Central India. Indian Miner 60(3-4): 199-202.

Mol D., van den Bergh G.D. 1999 Fossil proboscideans from the Netherlands, the North Sea and the Oosterschelde estuary. Deinsea (Mammoths & the Mammoth Fauna) 6, 119-145.

Palombo M.R., Anzidei A.P., Arnoldus-Huyzendveld A. 2003 La Polledrara di Cecanibbio: one of the richest Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus sites of the late Middle Pleistocene in Italy. Deinsea 9, 317-330.

Patnaik, Rajeev et al. (2019). Dietary and habitat shifts in relation to climate of Neogene-Quaternary proboscideans and associated mammals of the Indian subcontinent. Quaternary Science Reviews 224: 105968. [Abstract]

Park Y.A., Yi H., II. 1995 Late Quaternary climatic changes and sea-level history along the Korean coasts. Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue No. 17.), 163-168.

Pilgrim, G. E. (1905). On the occurrence of Elephas Antiquus (Namadicus) in the Godavari alluvium, with remarks on the species, its distribution and the age of the associated Indian deposits. Records of the Geological Survey of India 33 (3): 199-218.

Prinsep, L. (1834). Note on the fossil bones on the Nerbudda valley discovered by Dr. G.G. Spilsbury near Narsinhpur. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 3: 396-403.

Pushkina D. 2007 The Pleistocene easternmost distribution in Eurasia of the species associated with the Eemian Palaeoloxodon antiquus assemblage. Mammal Review 37(3): 224-245.

Rai, Y. C. (2004). Fossil elephants from the Indian Sub-Continent and their tusks: a review. Journal of the Palaeontological Society of India 49: 169-188.

Spilsbury, G. G. (1837). Notice of new sites of fossils deposits in the Nerbudda Valley. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 6: 487-489.

Turvey, Samuel T. et al. (2013). Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 76: 156-166. [Abstract]

Wei Q, 1976. Recent nd of fossil Palaeoloxodon namadicus from Nihewan Beds. Vert PalAsiat, 14(1): 53–58.


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