Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948

Northern elephant, North African forest elephant, Carthaginian elephant, Atlas elephant



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Loxodonta africana pharaoensis [sic] Deraniyagala, 1948


Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene



Eritrea & Sudan


Biology & Ecology










Charles, Michael B. (2016). Elephant Size in Antiquity: DNA Evidence and the Battle of Raphia. Historia 65(1): 53-65. [Abstract]

Khalaf, Norman Ali Bassam. (2020a). A Historical Record of the Extinct Carthaginian Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaohensis Deraniyagala, 1948) from Tell Rafah, South of Gaza Strip, State of Palestine. Gazelle: The Palestinian Biological Bulletin 40(209): 1-30.

Nowak, Ronald M. (1999), Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th edition, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp 1002.

Rance, P. (2009). "Hannibal, Elephants and Turrets in Suda Θ 438 [Polybius Fr. 162B] – An Unidentified Fragment of Diodorus". Classical Quarterly 59(1): 91-111.

Scullard, H. H. (1953). "Ennius, Cato, and Surus". The Classical Review 3(3/4): 140-142.

Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. (2005). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. Third edition. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J. and Kock, D. (1986). Catalogue of the Mammals of Ethiopia. 6. Perissodactyla, Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Tubulidentata, Sirenia, and Cetacea, Italian J. Zool., Suppl., n.s., 21: 31-103.


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