Elephas creutzburgi Kuss, 1965

Crete dwarf elephant



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Elephas antiquus creutzburgi Kuss, 1965; Palaeoloxodon antiquus creutzburgi Kuss, 1965; Palaeoloxodon creutzburgi Kuss, 1965


Conservation Status




Crete, Greece












Original scientific description:

Kuss, S. E. (1965). Eine pleistozane Saugetierfauna der Insel Kreta. Ber. Naturf. Ges Freiburg i. Br. 5: 265-304.


Other references:

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Athanassiou, Athanassios, van der Geer, Alexandra and Lyras, George A. (2019). Pleistocene insular Proboscidea of the Eastern Mediterranean: A review and update. Quaternary Science Reviews 218: 306-321. [Abstract]

Joger, U. and Garrido, G. (2001). Phylogenetic position of Elephas, Loxodonta and Mammuthus, based on molecular evidence, pp. 544-547. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Palombo, Maria Rita and Carmelo, Petronio. (1989). Morphostructural characters of Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) creutzburgi (Kuss, 1965) femur from Simonelli Cave (Rethymnon, Crete) / Caratteri morfostrutturali del femore di Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) creutzburgi (Kuss, 1965) di Grotta Simonelli (Rethymnon, Creta). Hystrix. [incomplete citation]

Poulakakis, N., Mylonas, M., Lymberakis, P. and Fassoulas, C. (2002). Origin and taxonomy of the fossil elephants of the island of Crete (Greece): Problems and perspectives. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 186(1-2): 163-183.

Sen, Sevket, Barrier, Eric and Crété, Xavier. (2014). Late Pleistocene Dwarf Elephants from the Aegean Islands of Kassos and Dilos, Greece. Annales Zoologici Fennici 51(1-2): 27-42. [Abstract]

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). In the shadow of the megafauna: prehistoric mammal and bird extinctions across the Holocene, pp. 17-39. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. New York: Oxford University Press.


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