Cuvieronius hyodon Fischer, 1814



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Mastotherium hyodon Fischer, 1814


Conservation Status


Last record: early Holocene (Dávila et al., 2019)



Bolivia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Peru.


"restricted to Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia" (Mothé et al. 2017)

Guatemala (Dávila et al., 2019)


Biology & Ecology










Alberdi, María T. and Prado, José L. (2022). Diversity of the fossil gomphotheres from South America. Historical Biology 34(8): 1685-1691.

Arroyo-Cabrales J., Polaco O.J., Laurito C., Johnson E., Teresa Alberdi M., Valerio Zamora A.L. (2007). The proboscideans (Mammalia) from Mesoamerica. Quaternary International 169–170: 17-23.

Barnosky A.D., Lindsey E.L. 2010 Timing of Quaternary megafaunal extinction in South America in relation to human arrival and climate change. Quaternary International 217(1–2), 10-29.

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Cisneros J.C. 2005 New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8(3), 239-255.

Dávila, S. L., Stinnesbeck, S. R., Gonzalez, S., Lindauer, S., Escamilla, J. and Stinnesbeck, W. (2019). Guatemala’s Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) fauna: Revision and interpretation. Quaternary Science Reviews 219: 277-296. [Abstract]

Ferretti, Marco P. (2008). Enamel Structure of Cuvieronius hyodon (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae) with a Discussion on Enamel Evolution in Elephantoids. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 15(1): 37-58. [Abstract]

Frassinetti, D. and Alberdi, M. T. (2000). Revisión y estudio de los restos fósiles de Mastodontes de Chile (Gomphotheriidae): Cuvieronius hyodon, Pleistoceno superior. Estudios Geol., 56: 197-208.

Gallo, V. et al. (2013). Distributional patterns of herbivore megamammals during the Late Pleistocene of South America. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 85(2): 533-546.

Kurtén B. 1968 Pleistocene mammals of Europe. London, Aldine Transaction.

Kurtén B., Anderson E. 1980 Pleistocene Mammals of North America. New York, Columbia University Press.

Lucas, Spencer G. (2014). Late Pleistocene mammals from El Hatillo, Panama. Rev. Geol. Amér. Central 50: 139-151.

Morgan, Gary S., McFadden, Bruce J. MacFadden and Martínez, Martín. (In Press, 2015). Quaternary gomphotheres (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) from the continental shelf, Pearl Islands, Panama. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.11.003 [Abstract]

Mothé, Dimila et al. (2012). Taxonomic revision of the Quaternary gomphotheres (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) from the South American lowlands. Quaternary International 276-277: 2-7. [Abstract]

Mothé, Dimila, Ferretti, M. P. and Avilla, L. S. (2016). The Dance of Tusks: Rediscovery of Lower Incisors in the Pan-American Proboscidean Cuvieronius hyodon Revises Incisor Evolution in Elephantimorpha. PLoS One 11(1): e0147009.

Mothé, Dimila et al. (2017). Sixty years after ‘The mastodonts of Brazil’: The state of the art of South American proboscideans (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae). Quaternary International 443(A): 52-64. [Abstract]

Matheus Souza Lima-Ribeiro, David Nogués-Bravo, Levi Carina Terribile, Persaram Batra, José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho. (In Press, 2013). Climate and humans set the place and time of Proboscideans extinction in late Quaternary of South America. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. [Abstract]

Pérez-Crespo, Víctor A., Prado, José L., Alberdi, Maria T., Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín and Johnson, Eileen. (2016). Diet and Habitat for Six American Pleistocene Proboscidean Species Using Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotopes. Ameghiniana 53(1): 39-51. [Abstract]

Pérez-Crespo, Víctor A. et al. (2023). Feeding habits of the Gomphothere Cuvieronius hyodon in Costa Rica: a biochemical approach. Historical Biology.

Prado, J. L., Alberdi, M. T., Azanza, B., Sánchez, B. and Frassinetti, D. (2001). The Pleistocene Gomphotheres (Proboscidea) from South America: diversity, habitats and feeding ecology, pp. 337-340. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Prado J.L., Alberdi M.T., Azanza B., Sánchez B., Frassinetti D. 2005 The Pleistocene Gomphotheriidae (Proboscidea) from South America. Quaternary International 126-128: 21-30.

Prates, Luciano and Perez, S. Ivan. (2021). Late Pleistocene South American megafaunal extinctions associated with rise of Fishtail points and human population. Nature Communications 12: 2175.

Sanchez, Guadulupe et al. (2014). Human (Clovis)–gomphothere (Cuvieronius sp.) association ∼13,390 calibrated yBP in Sonora, Mexico. PNAS. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404546111 [Abstract]

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Smith, Gregory James and DeSantis, Larisa R. G. (2020). Extinction of North American Cuvieronius (Mammalia: Proboscidea: Gomphotheriidae) driven by dietary resource competition with sympatric mammoths and mastodons. Paleobiology 46(1): 41-57.


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