Xenothrix mcgregori Williams & Koopman, 1952:12

Jamaican monkey



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 1,477 ± 34 (cal BP) (Cooke et al., 2017); 1600's? (possible report)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct









Holotype: AMNHM 148198 (manidble)


Other specimens:

AMNHM 259900 (femur)

AMNHM 259901 (proximal humerus)

AMNHM 259902 (tibia)

AMNHM 259903 (tibia)

AMNHM 259904 (os coxae)

AMNHM 268001 (mandible)

AMNHM 268003 (femur)

AMNHM 268004 (mandible)

AMNHM 268005 (proximal humerus)

AMNHM 268006 (partial skull with right and left P3-M2)

AMNHM 268007 (partial left maxilla)






Original scientific description:

Williams, E. E. and Koopman, Karl F. (1952). West Indian fossil monkeys. American Museum Novitates 1546: 1-16.


Other references:

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Beck, Robin M. D. et al. (2023). Total evidence phylogeny of platyrrhine primates and a comparison of undated and tip-dating approaches. Journal of Human Evolution 174: 103293.

Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Mancina, Carlos A., Woods, Charles A. and Kilpatrick, C. William. (2012). Checklist: Updated Checklist of Endemic Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies, pp. 389-415. In: Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Woods, Charles A. and Sergile, F. E. (eds.). Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies: Contributions. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Museum of Natural History and Wacahoota Press. 482 pp.

Cooke, Siobhán B. (2011). Paleodiet of Extinct Platyrrhines With Emphasis on the Caribbean Forms: Three-Dimensional Geometric Morphometrics of Mandibular Second Molars. Anatomical Redord -New Series- 294(12): 2073-2091. [Abstract]

Cooke, Siobhán B., Dávalos, Liliana M., Mychajliw, Alexis M. Turvey, Samuel T. and Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Anthropogenic Extinction Dominates Holocene Declines of West Indian Mammals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 48: 301-327.

Cooke, Siobhán B., Mychajliw, Alexis M., Southon, John and MacPhee, Ross D. E. (2017). The extinction of Xenothrix mcgregori, Jamaica’s last monkey. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 937-949.

Ford, Susan M. (1986). Subfossil platyrrhine tibia (Primates: Callitrichidae) from Hispaniola: A possible further example of Island gigantism. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 70(1): 47-62. [Abstract]

Ford, Susan M. (1990). Platyrrhine evolution in the West Indies. J. Human Evol. 19:237-254.

Ford, Susan M. and G. S. Morgan. (1986). A new ceboid femur from the late Pleistocene of Jamaica. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 6(3): 281-289.

Hershkovitz, P. 1970. Notes on Tertiary platyrrhine monkeys and description of a new genus from the Late Miocene of Columbia. Folia Primatologica 13: 213-240.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Horovitz, I., R. D. E. MacPhee, C. Flemming, and D. A. McFarlane. (1997). Cranial remains of Xenothrix and their bearing on the question of Antillean monkey origins. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:suppl.54A.

Horovitz, I. and R. D. E. MacPhee. In press a. The primate fossil record of the Greater Antilles. In Woods, C. A., Ottenwalder, J. A., and Borroto, R. (eds.) The Mammals of the West Indies, vol. 1, Land Mammals. University of Florida Press.

Horovitz, I. and R. D. E. MacPhee. In press b. A skull and other newly discovered remains of the extinct Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori (Primates, Platyrrhini), with notes on its phylogenetic position. Amer. Mus. Novitates.

MacPhee, R. 2021. Xenothrix mcgregori. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T136515A17976302. Accessed on 02 July 2022.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and J. G. Fleagle. (1991). Postcranial remains of Xenothrix mcgregori (Primates, Xenotrichidae) and other Late Quaternary mammals from Long Mile Cave, Jamaica. In T.A. Griffiths and D. Klingener (editors), Contributions to mammalogy in honor of Karl F. Koopman, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 206: 287–321.

MacPhee, R. & Hoffmann, M. (2008a). Xenothrix mcgregori. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. ( Downloaded on 29 January 2012.

MacPhee, R. & Hoffmann, M. (2008b). Xenothrix mcgregori. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T136515A4303233. Downloaded on 26 June 2021.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and Horovitz, Ines. (2004). New craniodental remains of the Quaternary Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori (Xenotrichini, Callicebinae, Pitheciidae), with a reconsideration of the Aotus hypothesis. American Museum Novitates 3434.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and Meldrum, Jeff. (2006). Postcranial Remains of the Extinct Monkeys of the Greater Antilles, with Evidence for Semiterrestriality in Paralouatta. American Museum Novitates, No. 3516: 1-65.

D.A. McFarlane, J. Lundberg, and A. G. Fincham. (2002). A late Quaternary paleoecological record from caves of southern Jamaica, West Indies. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 64(2): 117-125.

McFarlane, D. A. and R. D. E. MacPhee. (1995). A Late Quaternary paleoecological record from caves in southern Jamaica. Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstracts with program, p. A-386.

Rosenberger, A. L. (1977). Xenothrix and ceboid phylogeny. Journall of Human Evolution 6(5): 461-472. [Abstract]

Shuker, Karl P. (2013, 8 June). Xenothrix – a mystery monkey from Jamaica. Blog post, available at:

Sloane, H. 1725. A Voyage to the Islands of Madeira, Barbados, Nieves, St. Christophers, and Jamaica With Natural History of the Herbs and Trees, Four-footed Beasts, Insects, Reptiles, Etc. of the Last of Those Islands. Vol II. London.

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. [Supplementary Information]

Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Past and present of insular Caribbean mammals: understanding Holocene extinctions to inform modern biodiversity conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 913-917.

Weintraub, B. (1997). Long lost jaw of an extinct monkey. National Geographic (April).

Woods, R., Turvey, S.T., Brace, S., MacPhee, Ross. D.E., Barnes, I. (2018) Ancient DNA of the extinct Jamaican monkey Xenothrix reveals extreme insular change within a morphologically conservative primate radiation. PNAS.


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