Piliocolobus waldronae Hayman, 1936:915

Miss Waldron's red colobus monkey, Miss Waldron’s red colobus, Miss Waldron's bay colobus, Black and red colobus (Hayman, 1936)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Colobus badius waldroni Hayman, 1936; Piliocolobus badius waldronae Hayman, 1936; Procolobus badius waldroni Hayman, 1936


Conservation Status


Last record: January or February 1978 (Martin & Asibey, 1979)

Recent (post 2000) photographs and specimens have been taken by illegal hunters, leading to speculation that the subspecies may still persist in some, small inaccessible areas of its former range. However, until definitive proof of its persistence is documented, it will remain in the "missing species" database.



Côte d’Ivoire (=Ivory Coast) & Ghana


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Hayman, R. W. (1936). On a Collection of Mammals from the Gold Coast. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 105(4): 915-937. [published in 1935?] [Abstract]


Other references:

Abedi-Lartey, Michael. (1998). Survey of Endangered Forest Primates in Western Ghana. Report on Field Work in Reserved and Public Land in Western Ghana from April to November, 1997. Report to Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY, Primate Conservation, Inc., New York, Conservation International, Washington, DC, and the Wildlife Department, Accra, Ghana, March, 1998. 37 pp.

Asibey, E. O. A. 1978. Primate conservation in Ghana. Pp. 55-74 in D.J. Chivers and W. Lane-Petter (eds.), Recent Advances in Primatology, Volume 2, Conservation. Academic Press, London. [relevant citation?]

Bitty, A. E., Gonedele, S. B., Koffi Bene, J. C., Kouass, P. Q.i and McGraw, W. S. (2015). Cocoa farming and primate extirpation inside Cote d’Ivoire’s protected areas. Tropical Conservation Science 8(1): 95-113.

Booth, A. H. (1954). A note on the colobus monkeys of the Gold and Ivory Coasts. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 12th Series 7: 857-860.

Booth, A. H. (1956). The distribution of primate in the Gold Coast. Journal of the West African Science Association 2: 122-133.

Buzzard, P. J. and Parker, A. J. A. (2012). Surveys from the Subri River Forest Reserve, Ghana. African Primates 7(2): 175-183.

Gatti, Sylvain. (2010). Status of Primate Populations in Protected Areas Targeted by the Community Forest Biodiversity Project. Report. Community Forest Biodiversity Project: Status of primate populations in Protected Areas targeted under CFBP.WAPCA and WD/FC, Accra, Ghana. 39pp. Appendix 1. Data sheet used to record observations, 2pp. Appendix 2. People involved in research surveys, 1p.

Groves C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Groves, C.P. 2007. The taxonomic diversity of the Colobinae of Africa. Journal of Anthropological Sciences 85: 7-34.

Hudon, Daniel (writer) and Behin, Elahe (illustrator). (2014, April 6th). Brief Eulogies for Lost Species. Paragraphiti. Retrieved from [accessed 21 April, 2018]

Jeffrey, S. M. 1970. Ghana’s forest wildlife in danger. Oryx 10: 240-243. [relevant citation?]

Martin, Claude and Asibey, Emmanuel O. A. (1979). Effect of timber exploitation on primate population and distribution in the Bia Rain Forest Area of Ghana. VIIth Congress of the International Primatological Society, 8-12 January 1979, Bangalore, India. Manuscript. 23pp.

McGraw, W. Scott. (1998). Three monkeys nearing extinction in the forest reserves of Côte d’Ivoire. Oryx 32(3): 233-236. [Abstract]

McGraw, W. Scott. (2001). A survey of forest primates near the Ivory Coast’s Ehi Lagoon: Further evidence for the extinction of Colobus badius waldroni. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, AAPA Abstract Issue S32 (114): 106-107.

McGraw, W. Scott (2005). Update on the Search for Miss Waldron’s Red Colobus Monkey. International Journal of Primatology 26(3): 605-619.

McGraw, W. Scott & Oates, John F. (2002). Evidence for a surviving population of Miss Waldron’s red colobus. Oryx 36 (3): 223.

Monahan, Jean. (2001). Miss Waldron's Red Colobus Is Extinct. Ploughshares 27(2/3): 118-119. [Abstract]

Oates, John F. (1993). Kakum National Park, Ghana. Wildlife Specialist’s Report on Visit of 9−29 August 1993. Unpublished report, September 1993. 17 pp. + 2 map.

Oates, John F. (1996). The Status of Ghana’s Forest Primates, with Special Reference to the Nini-Suhien National Park. A Report on Field Work in December 1995 and January 1996. Unpublished report to the Wildlife Department, Ghana, Conservation International, Washington, DC, and The Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, NY, January 1996. 16pp. + 1 table.

Oates, John F. (2006). Primate conservation in the forests of western Ghana: field survey results, 2005-2006. Report to the Wildlife Division, Forestry Commission, Ghana.

Oates, John F. (2011). Primates of West Africa: A Field Guide and Natural History. Conservation International, Arlington, VA.

Oates, John F.; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; McGraw, W. Scott; Struhsaker, Thomas T., and Whitesides, George H. (2000). Extinction of a West African Red Colobus Monkey. Conservation Biology 14(5): 1526-1532. [Abstract]

Oates, John F., Davies, G. and Delson, E. 1994. Diversity of living colobines. In: G.P. Davies and J.F. Oates (eds), Colobine Monkeys, their Ecology, Behaviour, and Evolution, pp. 45-73. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Oates, J.F., Koné, I., McGraw, S. & Osei, D. 2020. Piliocolobus waldroni (amended version of 2019 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T18248A166620835. Accessed on 08 July 2022.

Oates, John F., Struhsaker, T. & McGraw, S. 2016. Piliocolobus waldronae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T18248A92649220. Downloaded on 28 April 2018.

Oates, John F., Struhsaker, T. T. and Whitesides, G. H. (1996/1997). Extinction faces Ghana’s red colobus monkey and other locally endemic subspecies. Primate Conservation 1996/1997 (17): 138-144.

Ohio State University (2004, February 4). New Evidence Suggests That Monkey Thought Extinct Still Exists. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 19, 2011, from­ /releases/2004/02/040203233603.htm

Osei, David, Horwich, Robert H. and Pittman, Jeanne Marie. (2015). First Sightings of the Roloway Monkey (Cercopithecus diana roloway) in Ghana in Ten Years and the Status of Other Endangered Primates in Southwestern Ghana. African Primates 10: 25-40.

Pocock, R. I. (1935). The External Characters of a Female Red Colobus Monkey (Procolobus badius waldroni). Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 105(4): 939–944 (abstract available online:

Roberts, David L. and Kitchener, Andrew C. (2006). Inferring extinction from biological records: Were we too quick to write off Miss Waldron’s Red Colobus Monkey (Piliocolobus badius waldronae)? Biological Conservation 128: 285-287.

Schoutsen, M. A. (1996) Primate Survey, North, Mo Traditional Area. Report to Pro - Primates - Ghana ( Unpublished).

Struhsaker, T. T. 1993. Ghana’s Forests and Primates. Report of a field trip to Bia and Kakum National Parks and Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary in November 1993. Unpublished report, December 1993. 32pp. + 3 tables, 2 figs.

Struhsaker, T. T. 2005. Conservation of Red Colobus and their habitats. International Journal of Primatology 26(3): 525-538.

Struhsaker, T. T. and Oates, John F. (1995). The biodiversity crisis in south-western Ghana. African Primates 1(1): 5-6.

Whitesides, G. H. and Oates, J. F. (1995). Wildlife Surveys in the Rain-Forest Zone of Ghana. Report of a Field Trip to Selected Forest Reserves, Resource Reserves, and National Parks during July and August 1995. Unpublished report. 41 pp.'s_Red_Colobus


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