Hadropithecus stenognathus von Liburnau, 1899



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Pithecodon sikorae von Liburnau, 1900


Conservation Status


Last record: 1413 ± 80 14C age BP ± SD (Michielsen et al., 2023)





Biology & Ecology










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Burney, D. A. Rates, patterns, and processes of landscape transformation and extinction in Madagascar. in Extinctions in near time 145–164 (Springer, 1999).

Burney, D.A., L.P. Burney, L.R. Godfrey, W.L. Jungers, S.M. Goodman, H.T. Wright and A.J.T. Jull. (2004). A chronology for late Prehistoric Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution 47: 25-63.

Burney DA and Ramilisonina (1998) The kilopilopitsofy, kidoky and bokyboky: accounts of strange animals from Belo-sur-Mer, Madagascar, and the megafaunal “extinction window”. American Anthropologist 100: 957–966.

D.A. Burney, N. Vasey, L.R. Godfrey, Ramilisonina, W.L. Jungers, M. Ramarolahy, and L. Raharivony. (2008). New Findings at Andrahomana Cave, Southeastern Madagascar. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 70(1): 13-24.

Crowley, B. E. A refined chronology of prehistoric Madagascar and the demise of the megafauna. Quat. Sci. Rev. 29, 2591–2603 (2010).

Crowley, B. E., & Godfrey, L. R. (2013). Why all those spines? Anachronistic defences in the Didiereoideae against now extinct lemurs. South African Journal of Science, 109(1/2), 70– 76.

Crowley, Brooke Erin, Godfrey, Laurie Rohde and Samonds, Karen Elizabeth. (2023). What can hippopotamus isotopes tell us about past distributions of C4 grassy biomes on Madagascar? Plants, People, Planet.

Dumont, E. R., Ryan, T. M., & Godfrey, L. R. (2011). The Hadropithecus conundrum reconsidered, with implications for interpreting diet in fossil hominins. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1725), 3654– 3661.

Godfrey, L. R., Crowley, B. E., Muldoon, K. M., Kelley, E. A., King, S. J., Best, A. W., & Berthaume, M. A. (2016). What did Hadropithecus eat, and why should paleoanthropologists care? American Journal of Primatology, 78(10), 1098– 1112.

Godfrey LR, Jungers WL, Wunderlich RE, Richmond BG. (1997). Reappraisal of the postcranium of Hadropithecus (Primates, Indrioidea). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 103(4) :529-556. [Abstract]

Godfrey, L.R.; Jungers, W.L.; Burney, D.A.; Vasey, N.; Ramilisonina, S.J.; Wheeler, W.; Lemelin, P.; Shapiro, L.J. et al. (2006). New discoveries of skeletal elements of Hadropithecus stenognathus from Andrahomana Cave, southeastern Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution 51(4): 395-410. [Abstract]

Godfrey, Laurie R. et al. (2005). New Insights into Old Lemurs: The Trophic Adaptations of the Archaeolemuridae. International Journal of Primatology 26(4): 825-854.

Goodman, S. M. & Jungers, W. L. Extinct Madagascar: Picturing the island’s past. (University of Chicago Press, 2014).

Herrera, J. P. & Dávalos, L. M. Phylogeny and divergence times of lemurs inferred with recent and ancient fossils in the tree. Syst. Biol. 65, 772–91 (2016).

Jolly, C. (1970). Hadropithecus, a lemuroid small-object feeder. Man 5: 525–529.

Jungers, W.L., Demes, B. & Godfrey, L.R. 2008 How big were the "giant" extinct lemurs of Madagascar? In Elwyn Simons: a search for origins (ed. J.G. Fleagle & C.C. Gilbert), pp. 343-360. New York: Springer.

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Lamberton, C. (1938). Contribution à la connaissance de la faune subfossile de Madagascar. Note III: Les hadropithèques.Bull. Acad. malgache 20(1937): 127–170.

Lemelin P, Hamrick MW, Richmond BG, Godfrey LR, Jungers WL, Burney DA. (2008). New hand bones of Hadropithecus stenognathus: Implications for the paleobiology of the Archaeolemuridae. Journal of Human Evolution 54(3): 405-413. [Abstract]

Lorenz von Liburnau, L. (1902). Über Hadropithecus stenognathus Lz., nebst Bemerkungen zu einigen anderen ausgestorbenen Primaten von Madagaskar. Denkschriften der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Wien 72: 243-254.

Michielsen, Nathan M., Goodman, Steven M., Soarimalala, Voahangy, van der Geer, Alexandra A. E., Dávalos, Liliana M., Saville, Grace I., Upham, Nathan and Valente, Luis. (2023). The macroevolutionary impact of recent and imminent mammal extinctions on Madagascar. Nature Communications 14: 14. [Supplementary Data 1 (mammal list); Supplementary Data 6 (references)]

Orlando, Ludovic et al. (2008). DNA from extinct giant lemurs links archaeolemurids to extant indriids. BMC Evolutionary Biology 8: 121.

Rafferty, K. L., Teaford, M. F. and Jungers, W. L. (2002). Molar microwear of subfossil lemurs: improving the resolution of dietary inferences. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 645-657.

Ryan, T.M.; Burney, D.A.; Godfrey, L.R.; Göhlich, U.B.; Jungers, W.L.; Vasey, N.; Ramilisonina; Walker, A. et al. (2008). A reconstruction of the Vienna skull of Hadropithecus stenognathus. PNAS 105(31): 10699-10702.

Sivault, Elise et al. (2023). Can body mass and skull morphology predict seed and fruit ingestion potential for mammal species? A test using extant species and its application to extinct species. Functional Ecology.

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. [Supplementary Information]


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