Gigantopithecus blacki von Koenigswald, 1935




Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Giganopithecus blacki von Koenigswald, 1935 [orth. error used by Dong & Zhang, 2022]


Conservation Status


Last record: c.100,000 years ago



Asia (China, India, Indonesia & Vietnam)












Original scientific description:

von Koenigswald, G. H. R. (1935). Eine fossile Säugetierfauna mit Simia aus Südchina. Proc Kon Nederl Akad Weten Ser C 38: 872-879.


Other references:

Author? (2006). The "Real" King Kong. Scholastic News 62(16): 3. [Abstract]

Bocherens, Hervé et al. (In Press, 2015). Flexibility of diet and habitat in Pleistocene South Asian mammals: Implications for the fate of the giant fossil ape Gigantopithecus. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.11.059

Ciochon, R.L., Long, V.T., Larick, R., González, L., Grün, R., de Vos, J., Yonge, C., Taylor, L., Yoshida, H., Reagan, M. (1996). Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93: 3016-3020. [Abstract]

Ciochon, Russell L., Piperno, Dolores R. and Thompson, Robert G. (1990). Opal phytoliths found on the teeth of the extinct ape Gigantopithecus blacki: Implications for paleodietary studies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 8120-8124.

Daegling, D. J. and Grine, F. E. (1994). Bamboo feeding, dental microwear, and diet of the Pleistocene ape Gigantopithecus blacki. South African Journal of Science 90(10): 527-532.

LI Dawei, WANG Wei, HU Chaoyong, LIAO Wei. (2021). Paleoenvironment in Early Pleistocene from Chuifeng Cave in Guangxi: Evidence from C and O isotopes in tooth enamel from Gigantopithecus fauna. Quaternary Sciences 41(5): 1357-1365.

Dean, M. Christopher and Schrenk, Friedemann. (2003). Enamel thickness and development in a third permanent molar of Gigantopithecus blacki. Journal of Human Evolution 45(5): 381-388. [Abstract]

Dong, Wei and Zhang, Yingqi. (2022). Biochronologic sequences of the Pleistocene mammalian faunas in China and correlations with numeric dating. Quaternary Sciences 42(5): 1227-1246.

Frayer, D. W. (1973). Gigantopithecus and its relationship to Australopithecus. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 39: 413-426. [Abstract]

Groves, Colin P. (1970). Gigantopithecus and the mountain gorilla. Nature 226: 973-974.

Hall, Mark A. and Coleman, Loren. (2010). True Giants: Is Gigantopithecus Still Alive? Anomalist Books. 188 pp.

Hu, Yaowu et al. (2022). Calcium isotope ecology of early Gigantopithecus blacki (∼2 Ma) in South China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 584: 117522.

Jiang, Quyi et al. (2021). First direct evidence of conservative foraging ecology of early Gigantopithecus blacki (~2 Ma) in Guangxi, southern China. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. [Abstract]

Johnson, A.E., 1979. Skeletal estimates of Gigantopithecus based on a Gorilla analogy. Journal of Human Evolution 8(6), 585-587.

Kahlke, H. D. (1961). On the complex of the Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna of Southern China and the chronological position of Gigantopithecus blacki V. Koenigswald. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 6: 83-108. [volume 2(8)?]

Kahlke, H.D., 1984. Paleo-environment of Pleistocene Gigantopithecus blacki of continental Southeast Asia. International Journal of Primatology 5(4), 395.

von Koenigswald, G. H. R. (1952). Gigantopithecus blacki von Koenigswald, a giant fossil hominoid from the Pleistocene of southern China. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 43: 295-325.

Krantz, Grover S. (1987). A Reconstruction of the Skull of Gigantopithecus blacki and its Comparison with a Living Form. Cryptozoology 6: 24-39.

Kupczik, Kornelius and Dean, M. Christopher. (2008). Comparative observations on the tooth root morphology of [i]Gigantopithecus blacki[/i]. Journal of Human Evolution 54(2): 196-204. [Abstract]

Kupczik K, Dean MC, Spoor F. Tooth root morphology and dietary specialisation in Gigantopithecus blacki and extant hominids. J Hum Evol, in review.

Laitman, Jeffrey T. (2017). Extreme cousins of ours who are no more: From massive Gigantopithecus to diminutive Flores “hobbits”. The FASEB Journal 31(1): Supplement 86.4. [Abstract]

Lopatin, A. V., Maschenko, E. N. and Dac, Le Xuan. (2022a). Gigantopithecus blacki (Primates, Ponginae) from the Lang Trang Cave (Northern Vietnam): The Latest Gigantopithecus in the Late Pleistocene? Doklady Biological Sciences 502: 6-10.

Lopatin, A. V. et al. (2022b). Lang Trang Cave (Northern Vietnam): Pleistocene Mammalian Locality with Gigantopithecus Finds. Doklady Earth Sciences 504: 372-379.

Olejniczak, A. J. et al. (2008). Molar Enamel Thickness and Dentine Horn Height in Gigantopithecus blacki. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 135: 85-91.

Pan, Yue et al. (2023). Preliminary description of a late Middle Pleistocene mammalian fauna prior to the extinction of Gigantopithecus blacki from the Yixiantian Cave, Guangxi ZAR, South China. The Anatomical Record.

Pei, W. C. and Woo, J. K. (1956). New materials of Gigantopithecus teeth from south China. Acta Palaeont. Sin. 4: 477-490.

Pilbeam, D. (1970). Gigantopithecus and the origins of hominidae. Nature 225: 516-519.

Shao, Qingfeng et al. (In Press, 2016). U-series and ESR/U-series dating of the Stegodon–Ailuropoda fauna at Black Cave, Guangxi, southern China with implications for the timing of the extinction of Gigantopithecus blacki. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.12.016 [Abstract]

Wang, Wei. (2009). New discoveries of Gigantopithecus blacki teeth from Chuifeng Cave in the Bubing Basin, Guangxi, south China. Journal of Human Evolution 57: 229-240.

Wang, Yuan et al. (In Press, 2015). The Early Pleistocene Gigantopithecus-Sinomastodon fauna from Juyuan karst cave in Boyue Mountain, Guangxi, South China. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.11.071 [Abstract]

Wang W, Potts R, Baoyin Y, Huang W, Cheng H, Edwards RL, Ditchfield P. 2007. Sequence of mammalian fossils, including hominoid teeth, from the Bubing Basin caves, South China. J Hum Evol 52: 370-379.

Wang W, Potts R, Hou Y, Chen Y, Wu H, Yuan B, Huang W. (2005). Early Pleistocene hominid teeth recovered in Mohui cave in Bubing Basin, Guangxi, South China. Chin Sci Bull 50: 2777-2782.

Welker, Frido et al. (2019). Enamel proteome shows that Gigantopithecus was an early diverging pongine. Nature. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1728-8 [Abstract]

White, T. D. (1975). Geomorphology to paleoecology: Gigantopithecus reappraised. J Hum Evol 4: 219-233.

Zhang, Yingqi and Harrison, Terry. (2017). Gigantopithecus blacki: a giant ape from the Pleistocene of Asia revisited. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 162(S63): 153-177.


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