Pachylemur insignis (Filhol, 1895)

Southern giant ruffed lemur



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Lemur insignis Filhol, 1895; Lemur intermedius Filhol, 1895


Conservation Status






Biology & Ecology




University of Antananarivo:

UA 3031 (Meador, 2017:38)

UA 3035 (Meador, 2017:38)

UA 3075 (Meador, 2017:38)

UA 3103 (Meador, 2017:38)

UA 3124 (Meador, 2017:38)

UA 5312 (Meador, 2017:37)






Original scientific description:

Filhol, H. (1895). Observations concernant les Mammifères contemporains des Æpyornis à Madagascar. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. 1: 12–14.


Other references:

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Crovella S, Montagnon D, Rakotosamimanana B, Rumpler Y. (1994). Molecular biology and systematics of an extinct lemur: Pachylemur insignis. Primates 35: 519-522.

Hixon, Sean W. et al. (2018). Nitrogen isotope (δ15N) patterns for amino acids in lemur bones are inconsistent with aridity driving megafaunal extinction in south‐western Madagascar. Journal of Quaternary Science. doi: [Abstract]

Joseph, Grant S. and Seymour, Colleen L. (2022). Are Madagascar's obligate grazing-lawns ancient and evolved with endemic herbivores, or recently selected by introduced cattle? Biology Letters 18: 20220212.

Meador, Lindsay Renee. (2017). Who Ate the Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic and Community Study of Raptor, Crocodylian and Carnivoran Predation of the Extinct Quaternary Lemurs of Madagascar. Dissertation. xvii + 388 pp.

Muldoon, Kathleen M. et al. (2012). Early Holocene fauna from a new subfossil site: A first assessment from Christmas River, south central Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 7(1): 23-29.

Perez VR, Godfrey LR, Nowak-Kemp M, Burney DA, Ratsimbazafy J, Vasey N. (2005). Evidence of early butchery of giant lemurs in Madagascar. J. Hum. Evol. 49:722-742. [Abstract]

Rahantaharivao, Noromamy J., Godfrey, Laurie R., Schwartz, Gary T., King, Stephen and Ranivoharimanana, Lovasoa. (2021). The growth and development of Pachylemur, a large-bodied lemurid. Malagasy Nature 15: 141-158.

Rosenberger, Alfred L. et al. (In Press, 2015). Giant subfossil lemur graveyard discovered, submerged, in Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution.

Samonds, Karen E. et al. (2019). A new late Pleistocene subfossil site (Tsaramody, Sambaina basin, central Madagascar) with implications for the chronology of habitat and megafaunal community change on Madagascar’s Central Highlands. Journal of Quaternary Science 34(6): 379-392.


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