Macaca sylvanus pliocena Owen, 1846



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene.





Biology & Ecology










Castaños P., Murelaga X., Arrizabalaga A., Iriarte M.J. (2011). First evidence of Macaca sylvanus (Primates, Cercopithecidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Lezetxiki II cave (Basque Country, Spain). Journal of Human Evolution 60(6): 816-820.

Delson, E. (1980). Fossil macaques, phyletic relationships and a scenario of deployment, pp. 10-30. In: Lindburg, D. E. (ed.). The Macaques. Studies in Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution. New York: Van Nostrand.

Fooden, J. (2007). Systematic review of the Barbary Macaque, Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fieldiana, Zoology 113: 1-32.

Konidaris, George E. et al. (2022). First record of Macaca (Cercopithecidae, Primates) in the Middle Pleistocene of Greece. Journal of Human Evolution 162: 103104.

Reumer, Jelle W. F., Mold, Dick and Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich. (2018). First finds of Pleistocene Macaca sylvanus (Cercopithecidae, Primates) from the North Sea. Revue de Paléobiologie, Genève 37(2): 555-560.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. (2003). Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12): 3403-3403.

Szalay, F. S. and Delson, E. (1979). Evolutionary history of the Primates. New York (u.a.) (Academic Press). 580 pp.


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