Tapirus veroensis Sellards, 1918

Vero tapir



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Tapirus excelsus Simpson, 1945; Tapirus tennesseae Hay, 1920; Tapirus veroensis sellardsi Simpson, 1929


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene





Biology & Ecology




Holotype: UF/FGS 277

Type locality: Vero, Florida, USA






Original scientific description:

Sellards, E. H. (1918). The skull of a Pleistocene tapir including description of a new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora.  Florida Geological Survey, Annual Report 10: 57-70.


Other references:

Baghai-Riding, Nina L., Husley, Danielle B., Beck, Christine and Blackwell, Eric. (2017). Late Pleistocene megafauna from Mississippi alluvium plain gravel bars. Paludicola 11(3): 124-147. [automatic download: 1.28MB]

Brodkorb, Pierce. (1959). The Pleistocene avifauna of Arredondo, Florida. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum, Biological Sciences 4(9): 269-291.

Nicholas J. Czaplewski, William L. Puckette, and Clayton Russell. (2002). A Pleistocene tapir and associated mammals from the southwestern Ozark Highland. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 64(2): 97-107.

Eshelman, Ralph E., Lowery, Darrin, Grady, Frederick, Wagner, Dan and McDonald, H. Gregory. (2018). Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) Mammalian Assemblage from Paw Paw Cove, Tilghman Island, Maryland. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 102: vi + 15 pages, 4 figures, 1 table.

Faunmap working group. 1994 FAUNMAP: a database documenting late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 25(1-2): 1-690.

Graham, Russell W. et al. (In Press, 2018). Juvenile Pleistocene tapir skull from Russells Reserve Cave, Bath County, Virginia: Implications for cold climate adaptations. Quaternary International. doi: [Abstract]

Holman, J. Alan. (1959). Birds and mammals from the Pleistocene of Williston, Florida. Bull. Fla. State Mus. 5: 1-24.

Hulbert, Richard C. Jr. (2010). A new Early Pleistocene tapir (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) from Florida, with a review of Blancan tapirs from the state. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 49(3): 67-126.

Jefferson G.T. 1989 Late Cenozoic Tapirs (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) of western North America. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

van Linden, Lisa et al. (2022). Sagittal crest morphology decoupled from relative bite performance in Pleistocene tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae). Integrative Zoology.

Oesch, Ronald D. (1967). A Preliminary Investigation of a Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from Crankshaft Pit, Jefferson County, Missouri. Bulletin of the National Speleological Society 29(3): 163-185. [Abstract]

Sanders, A. E. (2002). Additions to the Pleistocene Mammal Faunas of South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. American Philosophical Society 2002: 1-152.

Schubert B.W., Mead J.I., Graham R.W. 2003 Ice Age Cave Faunas of North America. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.

Schultz, C. B., Corner, Martin, L. D. and Corner, R. C. (1975). Middle and Late Cenozoic tapirs from Nebraska. Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum 10: 1-21.

Simpson, George Gaylord. (1929). Pleistocene mammalian fauna of the Seminole Field, Pinellas County, Florida. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 56: 561-599.

Simpson, George Gaylord. (1945). Notes on Pleistocene and Recent tapirs. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 86(2): 33-82. [18.29 MB file]

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12): 3403-3403.

Weems, Robert E. et al. (2021). A vertebrate ichnofauna from the Late Pleistocene (Sangamon Interglacial) Tabb Formation at Stratford Hall Plantation, Westmoreland County, Virginia USA. In: Lucas, S. G., Hunt, A. P. & Lichtig, A. J., 2021, Fossil Record 7. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 82: 505-512.

Winkler, Dale A. and Winkler, Alisa J. (2022). New records of Late Pleistocene ungulates (Bootherium and Tapirus) from north central Texas. Paludicola 12(4): 330-341.


<< Back to the Perissodactyla (Odd-Toed Ungulates) database