Hippidion principale Lund, 1846



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Hippidium principale Lund, 1846; Equus principalis Lund, 1846; Onohippidium munizi Moreno, 1891; Hippidion angulatus Ameghino, 1889; Hippidion compressidens Ameghino, 1889


Conservation Status

Extinct if valid

Last record: Late Pleistocene



Argentina, Bolivia & Brazil


Biology & Ecology










M. T. Alberdi and J. L. Prado. 1993. Review of the genus Hippidion Owen, 1869 (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) from the Pleistocene of South America. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 108(1):1-22.

Alberdi M.T., Prado J.L. 1998 Comments on: Pleistocene horses from Tarija, Bolivia, and validity of the genus Onohippidium (Mammalia: Equidae), by B. J. MacFadden. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18(3), 669-672.

Auler A.S., Piló L.B., Smart P.L., Wang X., Hoffmann D., Richards D.A., Edwards R.L., Neves W.A., Cheng H. 2006 U-series dating and taphonomy of Quaternary vertebrates from Brazilian caves. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240(3-4), 508-522.

Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D. et al. (2023). Nearctic Pleistocene ungulates from the Pampean region (Argentina) in the historical collections of Santiago Roth in Switzerland: an overview. Swiss Journal of Palaeontology 142: 12.

Cirilli, Omar, Machado, H., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Barrón-Ortiz, C. I., Davis, E., Jass, C. N., Jukar, A. M., Landry, Z., Marín-Leyva, A. H., Pandolfi, L., Pushkina, D., Rook, L., Saarinen, J., Scott, E., Semprebon, G., Strani, F., Villavicencio, N. A., Kaya, F. and Bernor, R. L. (2022). Evolution of the Family Equidae, Subfamily Equinae, in North, Central and South America, Eurasia and Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene. Biology 11(9): 1258.

C. M. Deschamps. 2005. Late Cenozoic mammal bio-chronostratigraphy in southwestern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Ameghiniana 42(4):733-750.

Dantas, Mário A. T. (2022). Estimating the body mass of the Late Pleistocene megafauna from the South America Intertropical Region and a new regression to estimate the body mass of extinct xenarthrans. Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Fariña, Richard A., Vizcaíno, Sergio F. and Bargo, María S. (1998). Body mass estimations in Lujanian (late Pleistocene-Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna. Mastozoología Neotropical 5(2): 87-108.

Labarca, Rafael et al. (2020). Taguatagua 1: New insights into the late Pleistocene fauna, paleoenvironment, and human subsistence in a unique lacustrine context in central Chile. Quaternary Science Reviews 238: 106282. [Abstract]

Lopes, Renato Pereira et al. (2021). The Santa Vitória Alloformation: an update on a Pleistocene fossil-rich unit in Southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology 51(1): e2020065.

R. Lydekker. 1894. Contributions to a knowledge of the Fossil Vertebrates of Argentina. III - A study of extinct argentine ungulates. Anales del Museo de La Plata. Paleontología Argentina 2(3):1-86.

Morosi, Elizabeth and Ubilla, Martin. (2019). Feeding and environmental studies on late Pleistocene horses in mid-latitudes of South America (northern Uruguay). Quaternary Science Reviews 225: 106025. [Abstract]

Nascimento, Johnson Sarmentode Oliveira et al. (In Press, 2019). Taxonomy and paleoenvironmental inferences from fossil vertebrates of Paripiranga Borboletas Cave, Northeastern Bahia, Brazil. Journal of South American Earth Sciences. doi: [Abstract]

Omena, Érica Cavalcante et al. (2020). Late Pleistocene meso-megaherbivores from Brazilian Intertropical Region: isotopic diet (δ13C), niche differentiation, guilds and paleoenvironmental reconstruction (δ13C, δ18O). Historical Biology.

Orlando L., Metcalf J.L., Alberdi M.T., Telles-Antunes M., Bonjean D., Otte M., Martin F., Eisenmann V., Mashkour M., Morello F., et al. 2009 Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  of the United States of America 106(51), 21754-21759.

Prado, José L.; Alberdi, María T.; Bonini, Ricardo; Crispiani, Héctor. (2018). New records of Hippidion principale and Equus neogeus from Salado River (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 289(2): 123-138. [Abstract]

Prado, José L.; Bonini, Ricardo; Favier-Dubois, Cristian; Gómez, Gustavo N.; Steffan, Pamela; Alberdi, María T. (2019). Fossil horses from the Late Pleistocene of Tapalqué Creek (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie - Abhandlungen 294(3): 285-305. [Abstract]

Renders, E. and Vincelette, A. (2023). Methodology for the determination of modern and fossil horse gaits from trackways. Journal of Paleontological Techniques 27: 1-25.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Ubilla M., Perea D., Goso Aguilar C., Lorenzo N. 2004 Late Pleistocene vertebrates from northern Uruguay: tools for biostratigraphic, climatic and environmental reconstruction. Quaternary International 114(1), 129-142.

Varela, Luciano, Clavijo, Lucía, Tambusso, P. Sebastián and Fariña, Richard A. (2023). A window into a late Pleistocene megafauna community: Stable isotopes show niche partitioning among herbivorous taxa at the Arroyo del Vizcaíno site (Uruguay). Quaternary Science Reviews 317: 108286.

Villavicencio, Natalia A., Corcoran, Derek and Marquet, Pablo A. (2019). Assessing the Causes Behind the Late Quaternary Extinction of Horses in South America Using Species Distribution Models. Front. Ecol. Evol. 7: 226.


<< Back to the Perissodactyla (Odd-toed Ungulates) database