Haringtonhippus francisci (Hay, 1915)

Stilt-legged horse, Stilt-legged onager, New World stilt-legged equid



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Equus francisci Hay, 1915 (original combination)


E. cedralensis is considered a junior synonym of Haringtonhippus francisci by (Jiménez-Hidalgo & Díaz-Sibaja, 2020).


Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Hay, Oliver P. (1915). Contributions to the Knowledge of the Mammals of the Pleistocene of North America. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 48(2086): 535-549.


Other references:

Azzaroli, A. (1998). The genus Equus in North America: The Pleistocene species = Le genre Equus en Amérique du Nord - Les espèces du Pléistocène. Palaeontographia Italica 85: 1-60. [Abstract]

Bement, L. C. 1986. Mammalian faunal and cultural remains in the late Pleistocene deposits of Bonfire Shelter, 41VV218, Southwest Texas. University of Texas at Austin, i-vi + 73 pp.

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Cirilli, Omar, Machado, H., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Barrón-Ortiz, C. I., Davis, E., Jass, C. N., Jukar, A. M., Landry, Z., Marín-Leyva, A. H., Pandolfi, L., Pushkina, D., Rook, L., Saarinen, J., Scott, E., Semprebon, G., Strani, F., Villavicencio, N. A., Kaya, F. and Bernor, R. L. (2022). Evolution of the Family Equidae, Subfamily Equinae, in North, Central and South America, Eurasia and Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene. Biology 11(9): 1258.

Dalquest, W. W. 1979. The little horses (Genus Equus) of the Pleistocene of North America. American Midland Naturalist 101(1):241-244.

Harris, A. H. 1993. Quaternary vertebrates of New Mexico. Pp. 179-197, in Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 2:i-vii, 1-338.

Heintzman, Peter D; Zazula, Grant D; MacPhee, Ross DE; Scott, Eric; Cahill, James A; McHorse, Brianna K; Kapp, Joshua D; et al. (2017). A new genus of horse from Pleistocene North America. eLife. 6: e29944.

Eduardo Jiménez-Hidalgo; Roberto Díaz-Sibaja (2020). Was Equus cedralensis a non-stilt legged horse? Taxonomical implications for the Mexican Pleistocene horses. Ameghiniana 57(3): 284-288. doi:10.5710/AMGH.06.01.2020.3262 [Abstract]

Lundelius, E. L., Jr. 1984. A late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Cueva Quebrada, Val Verde County, Texas. Pp. 456-481, in, Contributions in Quaternary vertebrate paleontology: A volume in memorial to John E. Guilday (H. H. Genoways and M. R. Dawson, eds.). Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Special Publication No. 8: i-v + 1-538.

Mitchell, Kieren J. et al. (In Press, 2021). Evidence for Pleistocene gene flow through the ice-free corridor from extinct horses and camels from Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming. Quaternary International.

Morgan, G. S., and L. F. Rinehart. 2007. Late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) mammals from fissure deposits in the Jurassic Todilto Formation, White Mesa mine, Sandoval County, north-central New Mexico. New Mexico Geology 29(2):39-51.

Pérez-Crespo, Víctor Adrián et al. (2022). Feeding habits of Equus conversidens and Haringtonhippus francisci from Valsequillo, Puebla, México. Historical Biology 34(7): 1252-1259.

Schultz, C. B., and E. B. Howard. 1935. The fauna of Burnet Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 87:273-298.

Skinner, M. F. (1942). The fauna of Papago Springs Cave, Arizona, with a study of Stockoceros. American Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 80:143-220.

Spencer, Lillian M. and Scott, Eric. (In Press, 2022). Resource partitioning among late Pleistocene herbivores of Natural Trap Cave, Wyoming. Quaternary International.

Van Devender, T. R., A. M. Rea, and M. L. Smith. (1985). The Sangamon interglacial vertebrate fauna from Rancho La Brisca, Sonora, México. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 21(2):23-55.

A.O. Vershinina, P.D. Heintzman, D.G. Froese, G. Zazula, M. Cassatt-Johnstone, L. Dalén, C. Der Sarkissian, S.G. Dunn, L. Ermini, C. Gamba, P. Groves, J.D. Kapp, D.H. Mann, A. Seguin-Orlando, J. Southon, M. Stiller, M.J. Wooller, G. Baryshnikov, D. Gimranov, E. Scott, E. Hall, S. Hewitson, I. Kirillova, P. Kosintsev, F. Shidlovsky, H.-W. Tong, M.P. Tiunov, S. Vartanyan, L. Orlando, R. Corbett-Detig, R.D. MacPhee, B. Shapiro. (2021). Ancient horse genomes reveal the timing and extent of dispersals across the Bering Land Bridge. Molecular Ecology 30(23): 6144-6161.

J. Weinstock, E. Willerslev, A. Sher, W. Tong, S. Ho, D. Rubenstein, J. Storer, J. Burns, L. Martin, C. Bravi, A. Prieto, D. Froese, E. Scott, L. Xulong, A. Cooper. (2005). Evolution, systematics, and phylogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective. PLoS Biology 3(8): e241-0001-e241-007.

Winans, M. C. 1985. Revision of North American fossil species of the genus Equus (Mammalia: Perissodactyla: Equidae). Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, 264 pp.

Winans, M. C. 1989. A quantitative study of North American fossil species of the genus Equus. Pp. 262-297, in The evolution of perissodactyls (D. R. Prothero and R. M. Schoch, eds.), Clarendon Press/Oxford University Press, New York. 537 pp.


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