Equus hemionus castaneus Lydekker, 1904

Xinjiang kulan, dzigettai



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Equus Onager castaneus R. Lydekker, Novit. Zool. 11, 1904, 520


Conservation Status

Extinct if valid



Kirghis Nor, Kobdo (now Jirgalanta), Mongolia


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Lydekker R. 1904. Note on the Wild Ass of Mongolia. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1904, 431-432.


Lydekker R. 1904. Notes on the specimens of Wild Asses in English collections. Nov. Zool. 11, 583-596.


Other references:

Bannikov A.G. 1981. Le Kulan. Ed. "Lesnaja promyshlennost'", 119pp, 22 fig., Moscou. (available in English: The Asiatic Wild Ass, translated by M. Proutkina, Zoological Society of San Diego).

Denzau G., Denzau H.1999. Wildesel. Tübingen, Jan Thorbecke-Verlag. 

Lydekker R. 1916. Catalogue of the ungulate mammals in the British Museum (Natural History). Vgol. V. London, British Museum.

Matschie P. 1911. Über einige von Herrn Holderer in der südlichen Gobi und in Tibet gesammelte Säugetiere, in Futterer K. Durch Asien 3. V. Zoologie (Nachtrag).

Moehlman, Patricia D. (ed.). (2002). Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Equid Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. ix + 190 pp.

Solomatin A.O. 1973. Kulan. Ed. Nauka, 145 pp., 42 fig., 28 tabl., Moskva. (In Russian)


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