Equus fraternus Leidy, 1860



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Onager fraternus; Tomolabis fraternus


Conservation Status

Extinct if valid

Last record: Late Pleistocene



North America


Biology & Ecology










G. M. Allen. 1926. Fossil mammals from South Carolina. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 67(14):447-467

Azzaroli, A. (1998). The genus Equus in North America: The Pleistocene species = Le genre Equus en Amérique du Nord - Les espèces du Pléistocène. Palaeontographia Italica 85: 1-60. [Abstract]

Cirilli, Omar, Machado, H., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Barrón-Ortiz, C. I., Davis, E., Jass, C. N., Jukar, A. M., Landry, Z., Marín-Leyva, A. H., Pandolfi, L., Pushkina, D., Rook, L., Saarinen, J., Scott, E., Semprebon, G., Strani, F., Villavicencio, N. A., Kaya, F. and Bernor, R. L. (2022). Evolution of the Family Equidae, Subfamily Equinae, in North, Central and South America, Eurasia and Africa during the Plio-Pleistocene. Biology 11(9): 1258.

E. D. Cope. 1892. A contribution to the vertebrate paleontology of Texas. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 30(137):123-131

J. W. Gidley. 1901. Tooth Characters and Revision of the North American Species of the Genus Equus. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 14(9):1-60

R. C. Hulbert. 1995. Equus from Leisey Shell Pit 1A and other Irvingtonian localities from Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 37(17):553-602

R. C. Hulbert and G. S. Morgan. 1989. Stratigraphy, paleoecology, and vertebrate fauna of the Leisey Shell Pit Local Fauna, early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) of southwestern Florida. Papers in Florida Paleontology 2:1-19

B. Kurten and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene mammals of North America 1-442

E. L. Lundelius. 1972. Bureau of Economic Geology Report of Investigations 77

Matthew, W. D. (1902). List of the Pleistocene fauna from Hay Springs, Nebraska. Bulletin of the AMNH 16: 317-322.

J. H. Quinn. 1957. Pleistocene Equidae of Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas Report of Investigations 33:1-47

D. E. Savage. 1951. Late Cenozoic Vertebrates of The San Francisco Bay Region. University of California Publications, Bulletin of the Department of Geological Sciences 28(10):215-314

E. H. Sellards. 1940. Geological Society America Bulletin 51


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