Elasmotherium sibiricum Fisher von Valdgeim, 1808

Forehead-crested rhinoceros, Giant rhinoceros



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 26,038 ± 356 BP (Shpansky et al., 2016)





Biology & Ecology










Cerdeño, E. (1998). Diversity and evolutionary trends of the Family Rhinocerotidae (Perissodactyla). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 141(1-2): 13-34.

Hagstrum J., Firestone R., West A. (2009). Beringian megafaunal extinctions at ~ 37 ka BP: Do micrometeorites embedded in fossil tusks and skulls indicate an extraterrestial precursor to the Younger Dryas event? In AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (p. 1385.

Rivals, Florent et al. (2020). Dramatic change in the diet of a late Pleistocene Elasmotherium population during its last days of life: Implications for its catastrophic mortality in the Saratov region of Russia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 556: 109898. [Abstract]

Shpansky, Andrei Valerievich, Valentina Nurmagаmbetovna, Aliyassova and Ilyina, Svetlana Anatolievna. (2016). The Quaternary Mammals from Kozhamzhar Locality (Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan). American Journal of Applied Sciences 13(2): 189-199.

Terjaev, V. A. (1948). Geological position of the forehaed-crested rhinoceros (Elasmotherium). Sovetskaya geologiya 34: 81-87. [in Russian]

Titov, Vadim V., Baigusheva, Vera S. and Uchytel’, Roman S. (2021). The experience in reconstructing of the head of Elasmotherium (Rhinocerotidae). Russian J. Theriol. 20(2): 173-182.

Titov V.V., Tesakov A.S. 2010 Quaternary stratigraphy and paleontology of the southern Russia: connections between Europe, Africa and Asia.  (p. 78. Rostov-on-Don, International Union for Quaternary Research, Section on European Quaternary Stratigraphy, Southern Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences Geological Institute.


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