Ceratotherium simum cottoni Lydekker, 1908:319

Northern white rhino(ceros), Nile rhino(ceros), Square-lipped rhino(ceros), Northern square-lipped rhino(ceros), Cotton’s white rhino(ceros), Cross's rhino(ceros) (archaic)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonyms: Ceratotherium cottoni Lydekker, 1908:319; Diceros simus cottoni Lydekker, 1908:319; Rhinoceros simus cottoni Lydekker, 1908:319


Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild. Functionally extinct. Only 2 females (mother and daughter) remain, both in captivity.

Last record: 2006 (sighting); 2007 (indirect signs)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild)


In 1996, there were 31 Northern white rhinos in Garamba National Park. Fast forward a decade and the last observation of this subspecies in the wild was in 2006. Although indirect signs of their presence were recorded in 2007 (Emslie, 2011). With the death of Sudan, the world's last male Northern white rhino, the species is now considered functionally extinct, with merely two females, his daughter and granddaughter, still alive.



Africa (Central African Republic, DR Congo, Sudan, Uganda)


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Lydekker, Richard. (1908). The white rhinoceros. The Field (London) 111: 319.


Other references:

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Videmšek, Boštjan, Videmšek, Maja Prijatelj and Krivic, Matjaž (photographer). (Due August 2023). The Last Two: The Battle to Save the Northern White Rhinos. Rowman & Littlefield. 224 pp.

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Last chance to save the Northern White Rhino, official website:


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