Franklinia alatamaha W.Bartram ex Marshall

Franklin tree



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild (Knapp et al., 2020)

Last record: 1803

IUCN status: Extinct in the Wild



McIntosh County, Altamaha River valley, Georgia, United States (southeastern)


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Bartram, William. 1791. Travels Through North & South Carolina, Georgia, East & West Florida,…. James & Johnson: Philadelphia.


Other references:

Beech, E., Barstow, M. and Rivers, M. (2017). The Red List of Theaceae. Richmond, U.K.: BGCI.

CPC (1990). Centre for plant conservation data for North American plants database. CPC, Centre for plant conservation.

Fry, Joel T. (2000). “Franklinia alatamaha, A History of that ‘Very Curious’ Shrub, Part 1: Discovery and Naming of the Franklinia”, Bartram Broadside, (Spring), p. 1-24.

Fry, Joel T. (2017). Case study 3: Franklinia alatamaha, Franklin tree, p. 12. In: Beech, E., Barstow, M. and Rivers, M. The Red List of Theaceae. Richmond, U.K.: BGCI.

Gladfelter, Heather J. et al. (2020a). Adventitious shoot-based propagation of Franklinia alatamaha for commercial horticulture and restoration. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.-Plant. [Abstract]

Gladfelter, Heather J. et al. (2020b). Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of Franklinia alatamaha, a tree species existing only in cultivation. Tree Genetics & Genomes 16: 60. [Abstract]

Hawkes, J. G., Maxted, N. and Ford-Lloyd, B. V. (2000). Field Gene Banks, Botanic Gardens In Vitro, DNA and Pollen Conservation, pp. 92-107. In: The Ex Situ Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Humphreys, Aelys M., Govaerts, Rafaël, Ficinski, Sarah Z., Lughadha, Eimear Nic and Vorontsova, Maria S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Abstract] [Supplementary Dataset 1]

Knapp, Wesley M. et al. (2020). Vascular plant extinction in the continental United States and Canada. Conservation Biology. doi:

Krochmal, C. and Krochmal, A. (1979). The Franklin tree, discovered just in time. Garden, 3(4), 15-17.

Marshall, Humphry. 1785. Arbustrum Americanum. The American Grove, or an Alphabetical Catalogue of Forest Trees and Shrubs, Natives of the American United States, Arranged According to the Linnaean System…, Joseph Cruikshank: Philadelphia.

Oldfield, Sara, Lusty, Charlotte and MacKinven, Amy (compilers). (1998). The World List of Threatened Trees. Cambridge, U.K.: World Conservation Press. 650 pp.

Owens, Simon J. and Rix, Martyn. (2007). Franklinia alatamaha: Theaceae. Curtis' Botanical Magazine 24(3): 186-189. [Abstract]

Prince, L.M. 2009. Theaceae. Flora North America, vol. 8, pp. 322-328. Oxford University Press, New York.

Rivers, M. C. (2015). Franklinia alatamaha. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T30408A62077322. Downloaded on 17 May 2016.

Schoonderwoerd, Kristel M. and Friedman, William E. (2016). Zygotic dormancy underlies prolonged seed development in Franklinia alatamaha (Theaceae): a most unusual case of reproductive phenology in angiosperms. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181(1): 70-83. [Abstract]

Spongberg, S.A. (1997). Franklinia alatamaha Marshall. Extinct in the wild: an early example. Broadleaves. Newsletter of the lUCN-SSC Temperate Broadleaved Trees Specialist Group 5: 7-9.

Walter, Kerry S. and Gillett, Harriet J. (eds.). (1998). 1997 IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants. Compiled by the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK: IUCN – The World Conservation Union. lxiv + 862 pp.


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