Protemnodon brehus Owen, 1874

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

 

 

Conservation Status

Extinct

Last record: Late Pleistocene

 

Distribution

Australia

 

Biology & Ecology

 

 

Hypodigm

Syntypes:

F43303a (Dawson, 1985:66)

BM 43853 (Dawson, 1985:66)

 

Other specimens:

UCMP 54031 (Dawson, 1985:66)

QMF44627 ("maxilla")

 

Media

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Owen, Richard. (1874). On the fossil mammals of Australia.-Part VIII. Family Macropodidae: Genera Macropus, Osphranter, Phascolagus, .Sthenurus, and Protemnodon. Phi!. Tra'!s. R. Soc. 164: 245-87, pis 20-7.

 

Other references:

Archer, Michael "Mike". (1978). Quaternary vertebrate faunas from the Texas Caves of southeastern Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 19(1): 61-109.

Armand, L., Ride, W. D. L. and Taylor, G. (2000). The stratigraphy and palaeontology of Teapot Creek, MacLaughlin River, NSW. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 122: 101-121.

Ayliffe, L. K., G. J. Prideaux, M. I. Bird, R. Grün, R. G. Roberts, G. A. Gully, R. Jones, L. K. Fifield, and R. G. Cresswell. 2008. Age constraints on Pleistocene megafauna at Tight Entrance Cave in southwestern Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews 27: 1784-1788.

Balme, J. M., Merrilees, D. and Porter, J. K. (1978). Late Quaternary mammal remains, spanning about 30 000 years, from excavations in Devil’s Lair, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 61: 33-65.

Bartholomai, A. (1973). The genus Protemnodon Owen (Marsupialia; Macropodidae) in the upper Cainozoic deposits of Queensland. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 16(3): 309-363.

Dawson, Lyndall. (1985). Marsupial fossils from Wellington Caves, New South Wales; the historic and scientific significance of the collections in the Australia Museum, Sydney. Records of the Australian Museum 37(2): 55-69.

Errey, K. and Flannery, T. F. (1978). The neglected megafaunal sites of the Colongulac region, western Victoria. The Artefact 3: 101-106. [Fossil record of either this species or P. roechus]

Fillios, M., Field, Judith and Charles, B. (2010). Investigating human and megafauna co-occurrence in Australian prehistory: Mode and causality in fossil accumulations at Cuddie Springs. Quaternary International 211(1-2): 123-143.

Flannery, Timothy F. and Gott, B. (1984). The Spring Creek locality, southwestern Victoria, a late surviving megafaunal assemblage. Australian Zoologist 21(4): 385-422.

Helgen, Kristofer M. et al. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary significance of sizes of giant extinct kangaroos. Australian Journal of Zoology 54(4): 293-303. [body weight estimate]

Jones, Billie, Janis, Christine and Rayfield, Emily. (2020). Limb proportions indicate Protemnodon’s locomotion was divergent from modern large macropodines. Poster presentation (abstract), p. 46. In: Progressive Palaeontology 2020 Abstract Booklet.

Jones, Billie et al. (2022). Distal Humeral Morphology Indicates Locomotory Divergence in Extinct Giant Kangaroos. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 29: 27-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10914-021-09576-3

Mahoney, J. A. and Ride, W. D. L. (1975). Index to the genera and species of fossil Mammalia described from Australia and New Guinea between 1838 and 1968. Western Australian Museum Special Publication 6: 1-250.

Marcus, L. F. 1976. The Bingara Fauna: a Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Murchison County, New South Wales, Australia. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 114: 1-145.

Marshall, Larry G. (1974). Late Pleistocene mammals from the "Keilor Cranium Site", southern Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria 35: 63-86.

Merrilees, D. (1979). The prehistoric environment in Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 62(3 or 4): 109-128.

Molnar, R. E. and Kurz, C. (1997). The distribution of Pleistocene vertebrates on the eastern Darling Downs, based on the Queensland Museum collections. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 117: 107-133.

Owen, Richard. (1874). On the fossil mammals of Australia, part VIII. Family Macropodidae: genera Macropus, Osphranter, Phascolagus, Sthenurus and Protemnodon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 164: 245-287.

Pate, F. Donald, McDowell, Matthew C., Wells, Rod T. and Smith, Andrew M. (2002). Last recorded evidence for megafauna at Wet Cave, Naracoorte, South Australia 45,000 years ago. Australian Archaeology 54: 53-55.

Piper, Katarzyna J. (2016). The Macropodidae (Marsupialia) of the early Pleistocene Nelson Bay Local Fauna, Victoria, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 74: 233-253.

Price, Gilbert J. and Sobbe, I. H. (2005). Pleistocene palaeoecology and environmental change on the Darling Downs, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 51(1): 171-201. [subfossil remains from Darling Downs, Queensland]

Price G.J., Webb G.E., Zhao J.-x., Feng Y.-x., Murray A.S., Cooke B.N., Hocknull S.A., Sobbe I.H. 2011 Dating megafaunal extinction on the Pleistocene Darling Downs, eastern Australia: the promise and pitfalls of dating as a test of extinction hypotheses. Quaternary Sci Rev 30(7–8), 899-914.

Reed, E. H. and Bourne, S. J. (2000). Pleistocene fossil vertebrate sites of the south east region of South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 124: 61-90.

Roberts, R. G., Flannery T., Ayliffe L., Yoshida H., Olley J., Prideaux G., Laslett G., Baynes A., Smith M., Jones R.I., et al. (2001). New Ages for the last Australian megafauna: Continent-wide extinction about 46,000 years ago. Science 292: 1888-1892.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Tedford, R. H. 1967. The fossil Macropodidae from Lake Menindee, New South Wales. University of California Publications in Geological Sciences 64: 1-156.

Tedford, R. H. (1994). Lake Callabonna: 'Veritable necropolis of gigantic extinct marsupials and birds'. Abstracts of the fourth conference on Australian vertebrate evolution, palaeontology and systematics, Adelaide, 19-21 April, 1993. Records of the South Australian Museum 1994. [Abstract]

Van Huet, Sanja. (1999). The taphonomy of the Lancefield swamp megafaunal accumulation, Lancefield, Victoria. In: Baynes, Alexander and Long, John A. (eds.). Papers in vertebrate palaeontology. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 57: 331-340.

White, J. Peter and Flannery, Tim. (1995). Late Pleistocene fauna at Spring Creek, Victoria: A re-evaluation. Australian Archaeology 40: 13-17. [link to pdf copy at bottom of the page]

ftp://rock.geosociety.org/pub/reposit/2007/2007016.pdf

 

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