Protemnodon hopei Flannery, 1992



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene



New Guinea


Anatomy & Morphology

It weighed an estimated 45kg (Helgen et al., 2006; Johnson, 2006:18) or 50kg (Johnson & Prideaux, 2004:557).


Biology & Ecology

It may have eaten grass (Johnson, 2006:18).



AM F83413 (Flannery, 1999:343)

AM F88924 (Helgen et al., 2006:303)






Original scientific description:

Flannery, Timothy F. (1992). New Pleistocene marsupials (Macropodidae, Diprotodontidae) from subalpine habitats in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 16(4): 321-331. [Abstract]


Other references:

Flannery, Timothy F. (1999). The Pleistocene mammal fauna of Kelangurr Cave, central montane Irian Jaya, Indonesia. In: Baynes, Alexander and Long, John A. (eds.). Papers in vertebrate palaeontology. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Supplement No. 57: 341-350.

Helgen, Kristofer M., Wells, Rod T., Kear, Benjamin P., Gerdtz, Wayne R. and Flannery, Timothy F. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary significance of sizes of giant extinct kangaroos. Australian Journal of Zoology 54(4): 293-303. [body weight estimate]

Hope, Geoffrey S., Flannery, Timothy F. and Boeadi. (1993). A preliminary report of changing Quaternary mammal faunas in subalpine New Guinea. Quaternary Research 40(1): 117-126. [Abstract]

Johnson, Chris N. (2006). Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50 000 Year History. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. x + 278 pp. [p. 18]

Johnson, Chris N. and Prideaux, Gavin J. (2004). Extinctions of herbivorous mammals in the late Pleistocene of Australia in relation to their feeding ecology: no evidence for environmental change as cause of extinction. Australian Ecology 29: 553-557.

Jones, Billie, Janis, Christine and Rayfield, Emily. (2020). Limb proportions indicate Protemnodon’s locomotion was divergent from modern large macropodines. Poster presentation (abstract), p. 46. In: Progressive Palaeontology 2020 Abstract Booklet.

Roberts, Richard G, Flannery, Timothy F., Ayliffe, Linda, Yoshida, Hiroyuki, Olley, Jon M., Prideaux, Gavin J., Laslett, Geoff M., Baynes, Alexander, Smith, M. A., Jones, Rhys I. and Smith, Barton L. (2001). New ages for the last Australian megafauna: Continent-wide extinction about 46,000 years ago. Science 292(5523): 1888-1892.

Sutton, Alice, Mountain, Mary-Jane, Aplin, Ken, Bulmer, Susan and Denham, Tim. (2009). Archaeozoological records for the highlands of New Guinea: a review of current evidence. Australian Archaeology 69: 41-58.


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