Notamacropus parma (Waterhouse, 1846:149)

Parma wallaby, White-throated wallaby, White throated wallaby, White-throated pademelon, White-fronted wallaby (Ride, 1970:48), the Parma (Gray, 1843:91)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Macropus (Halmaturus) parma Gray, 1841:403 (nomen nudumProtemnodon parma Waterhouse, 1846:149; Thylogale parma Waterhouse, 1846:149; Wallabia parma Waterhouse, 1846:149; Halmaturus parma Waterhouse, 1845:149; Macropus parma Waterhouse, 1846:149


Synonymy needs fixing.


Conservation Status

Last record: 1932 (Ride, 1970:24,198)

Rediscovered in 1965 (Ride, 1970:24)

IUCN RedList status: Near Threatened


The Parma wallaby was last collected in 1932, from Dorrigo, north-eastern New South Wales when two specimens were collected (Ride, 1970:24). Wishing to redescribe the species, W. D. L. Ride acquired the loan of all known museum specimens to that date, which was twelve. While examining the specimens he saw the resemblance to the Black-striped wallaby, and made an effort thereafter to examine all specimens of the latter in museum collections which he visited. During one such visit he came across a mislabelled Parma wallaby among that of the Black-striped wallaby, whose locality was given as New Zealand. Contacting two of his New Zealand colleagues they were able to confirm the persistence of Parma Wallaby's on Kawau Island, presumably released by former New Zealand Governor Sir George Grey. The species was then rediscovered at Gosford, NSW by Mr Eric Worrell.



coastal New South Wales, Australia

Type locality: New South Wales (Calaby & Richardson, 1988:69)


Biology & Ecology

"Ecology: temperate, terrestrial, nocturnal, crepuscular, folivore, closed forest, tall open forest; needs thick understorey, solitary."

(Calaby & Richardson, 1988:69)



"Type data: status unknown, whereabouts unknown" (Calaby & Richardson, 1988:69)


Other specimens:

WAM 8382 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 10000 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 10001 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 11016 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18737 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18738 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18739 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18740 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18741 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18742 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18743 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18744 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18745 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18746 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18747 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

WAM 18748 (Kitchener & Vicker, 1981:62)

MV C.10716 (Helgen et al., 2006:301)

MV C.10717 (Helgen et al., 2006:301)

MV C.10718 (Helgen et al., 2006:301)

MV C.9592 (Helgen et al., 2006:301)

AM M37053 (Helgen et al., 2006:301)






Original scientific description:

Waterhouse, G. R. (1846). A Natural History of the Mammalia. Volume 1, containing the Order Marsupiata or pouched animals. London: Baillière. 553 pp + 20 pls.


Other references:

Acland, H.M. (1981). Parma wallaby herpesvirus infection. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 17: 471-477.

Agar, N.S., Godwin, (?). R., Suzuki, M., Hablethwaite, J., Roberts, J. and Hume, I.D. (1986). Comparative red blood cell metabolism in three wallaby species, Macropus eugenii, Macropus parma and Thylogale thetis (Macropodidae: Marsupialia). Comparative and Biochemical Physiology 85A: 297–299.

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Blampied, N. Le Q. and Allchurch, A. F . (1979). Veterinary report. Dodo, Journal of the Jersesy Wildlife Preservation Trust No. 16: 99-102. [some observations on parma wallabies]

Calaby, J. H. and Richardson, B. J. (1988). Macropodidae, pp. 60-80. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.). Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 5. Mammalia. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. x + 273 pp. [p. 68-69]

Clark, P., Holz, P., Booth, R., Jakob-Hoff, R., Cooper, D.W., Boardman, W.S., Parry, B.W. and Norman, R.J. (2003). Haematological characteristics of captive Parma wallabies (Macropus parma). Comparative Clinical Pathology 12(1): 11.

Cronstedt-Fell, A., Richter, B., Voracek, T. and Kubber-Heiss, A. (2012). Neosporosis in a Captive Parma Wallaby (Macropus parma). Journal of Comparative Pathology 146(2-3): 274.

Dawson, L. and Flannery, T. F. (1985). Taxonomic and phylogenetic status of living and fossil kangaroos and wallabies of the genus Macropus Shaw (Macropodidae: Marsupialia), with a new subgeneric name for the larger wallabies. Australian Journal of Zoology 33: 473-498.

Douch, D. K. et al. (2022). Molecular detection of two new putative species of gammaherpesvirus in petaurid possums. Australian Veterinary Journal.

Finnie, E.P., Littlejohns, I.R. and Acland, H.M. (1976). Mortalities in parma wallabies (Macropus parma) associated with probable herpesvirus. Australian Veterinary Journal 52: 294.

Fisher, Clem T. (1984). Australasian mammal specimens in the collections of Merseyside County Museums. Australian Mammology 7(4): 205-213.

Fisher, Diana O. (2011). Trajectories from extinction: where are missing mammals rediscovered? Global Ecology & Biogeography 20: 415-425. [Appendix S1]

Fox, B. J. and Read, D. G. (1989). Habitat preferences of the Parma Wallaby (Macropus parma). Final Report to Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service, Canberra.

Frith, H. J. (1979). Wildlife Conservation, revised edition. Angus & Robertson. xiv + 416 pp. [p. 295 (table), p. 312-313 (species account)]

Gray, John Edward. (1841). Contributions towards the geographical distribution of the Mammalia of Australia, with notes on some recently discovered species, in a letter addressed to the Author. Appendix C, pp. 397-414. In: Grey, G. Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in North-west and Western Australia, During the Years 1837, 38, and 39, Under the Authority of Her Majesty's Government. Describing many newly discovered, important, and fertile districts, with observations on the moral and physical condition of the aboriginal inhabitants, &c. &c. London: T & W. Boone. Vol. 2. vii + 482 pp.

Gray, John Edward. (1843). List of the specimens of Mammalia in the collection of the British Museum. London: British Museum. xxviii + 216 pp..

Helgen, Kristofer M., Wells, Rod T., Kear, Benjamin P., Gerdtz, Wayne R. and Flannery, Timothy F. (2006). Ecological and evolutionary significance of sizes of giant extinct kangaroos. Australian Journal of Zoology 54(4): 293-303. [body weight estimate]

Herter, U., Schneider, I. and Ganslosser, U. (1985). Some remarks on the behavioural repertoire of the parma-wallaby, Macropus parma Waterhouse. Zoologischer Anzeiger 215: 287-297.

Hoser, Raymond T. (1991). Endangered Animals of Australia. Mosman, NSW: Pierson & Co. 240 pp. [pp. 211-212]

Hume, I.D. (1986). Nitrogen metabolism in the parma wallaby, Macropus parma Australian Journal of Zoology 34: 147–155.

Iredale, Tom and Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1934). A check-list of the mammals recorded from Australia. Mem. Aust. Mus. 6: i-xii, 1-122.

Ivy, Jamie A., Miller, Adrienne, Lacy, Robert C. and DeWoody, J. Andrew. (2009). Methods and prospects for using molecular data in captive breeding programs: an empirical example using parma wallabies (Macropus parma). The Journal of Heredity 100(4): 441-454.

Jackson, Stephen and Groves, Colin. (2015). Taxonomy of Australian Mammals. Clayton South, Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing. 529 pp. [p. 158-159]

Janis, Christine M. (1990). Correlation of cranial and dental variables with dietary preferences in mammals: a comparison of macropodoids and ungulates. Mem. Qd. Mus. 28(1): 349-366.

Johnson, Chris N. and Prideaux, Gavin J. (2004). Extinctions of herbivorous mammals in the late Pleistocene of Australia in relation to their feeding ecology: no evidence for environmental change as cause of extinction. Australian Ecology 29: 553-557.

Joslin, Paul and Maryanka, Daphne. (1968). Endangered Mammals of the World: Report on Status and Action Treatment. IUCN Publications, New Series, Supplementary Paper No. 13: 34 pp.

Kirsch, J. A. W. (1967). Serological characterization of the parma wallaby, Macropus parma Waterhouse 1846. Australian Journal of Science 29: 430-431.

Kitchener, D. J. and Vicker, E. (1981). Catalogue of Modern Mammals in the Western Australian Museum 1895 to 1981. Perth: Western Australian Museum. 184 pp.

Krefft, Gerard. (1864). Catalogue of Mammalia in the Collection of the Australian Museum. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Krefft, Gerard. (1871). The Mammals of Australia, Illustrated by Harriett Scott and Helena Forde for the Council of Education ; With a Short Account of All the Species Hitherto Described. Sydney: Thomas Richards, Government Printer.

Lunney, D. and Leary, T. (1988). The impact on the native mammals of land-use changes and exotic species in the Bega District (New South Wales), since settlement. Australian Journal of Zoology 13: 67-92.

Lunney, D. and McKenzie, N. (2008). Macropus parma. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 07 October 2012.

Maxwell, S., Burbidge, A. A. and Morris, K. (1996). The 1996 Action Plan for Australian Monotremes and Marsupials. Wildlife Australia, Canberra.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1972a). Age estimation in the parma wallaby, Macropus parma Waterhouse. Australian Journal of Zoology 20: 107–18.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1972b). Reproduction of the parma wallaby Macropus parma. Australian Mammalogy 1: 63-64. (Abstract).

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1973a). Reproduction in the parma wallaby, Macropus parma Waterhouse. Australian Journal of Zoology 21: 331–51.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1973b). Wanted Information about the parma wallaby. Forest and Timber (Forestry Commission, New South Wales) Winter 1973: 19–20.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1973c). The parma wallaby. Parks and Wildlife 1: 92–94.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1974a). A case study in conservation The parma wallaby. Habitat 2(5): 3–6.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1974b). Occurrence and field recognition of Macropus parma. Australian Zoologist 18: 72-87.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1976a). Growth of the parma wallaby, Macropus parma Waterhouse. Australian Journal of Zoology 24: 217–36.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1976b). Biology of the Parma wallaby, Macropus Parma Waterhouse 1846. North Ryde, N.S.W.: Macquarie University. [Thesis?]

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1977a). Distribution and Aspects of the Biology of the Parma Wallaby, Macropus parma, in New South Wales. Australian Wildlife Research 4(2): 109-125. [Abstract]

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1977b). Breeding and age structure of the population of Macropus parma on Kawau Island, New Zealand. Australian Journal of Ecology 2: 207-214.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1979). Distribution and aspects of the biology of the Parma Wallaby, Macropus parma, in New South Wales. Aust. J. Wildl. Res. 4: 109-205

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1982). Parma wallaby Macropus parma. Australian Natural History 20: 295-298.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1983). Parma Wallaby [i]Macropus parma[/i], pp. 230-231. In: Strahan, R. (ed.). The Australian Museum complete book of Australian mammals. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (1995). Parma Wallaby, Macropus parma, pp. 342-344. In: Strahan, Ronald (ed.). The Mammals of Australia. Chatswood, N.S.W.: Reed Books. 756 pp.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (2008). Parma Wallaby, Macropus parma. In: S. Van Dyck and R. Strahan (eds), The mammals of Australia. Third Edition, pp. 341-343. Reed New Holland, Sydney, Australia.

Maynes, Gerald Michael. (2023). Parma Wallaby, Notamacropus parma, pp. 368-369. In: Baker, Andrew M. and Gynther, Ian C. (eds.). Strahan’s Mammals of Australia (4th ed.). Wahroonga, NSW: Reed New Holland Publishers. 848 pp.

McKenzie, L. M. and Cooper, D. W. (1995). Conservation Genetics of the Parma Wallaby Macropus parma: A Case Study for Australian Marsupials. Pacific Conservation Biology 2(2): 150-156. [Abstract]

Miller, Adrienne. (1994). North American regional studbook for Parma wallaby (Macropus parma). Providence, Rhode Island: Roger Williams Park Zoo.

Npa Wildlife Group. (1989). The Parma Wallaby (Macropus parma). National Parks Journal 33(2): 14-15.

Ogilby, J. Douglas. (1892). Catalogue of Australian Mammals, with Introductory Notes on General Mammalogy. Australian Museum, Sydney: Catalogue No. 16: viii + 142 pp.

Poole, W. E. (1979). The status of the Australian Macropodidae, pp. 13-27. In: Tyler, Michael J. (ed.). The status of endangered Australian wildlife. Adelaide.

Read, D. G. and Fox, B. J. (1991a). Viability of using faecal pellet counts for estimating Parma Wallaby, Macropus parma (Marsupialia: Macropodidae) density. Australian Mammalogy 14(1): 29-32.

Read, D.G. and Fox, B.J. (1991b). Assessing the habitat of the parma wallaby, Macropus parma (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). Wildlife Research 18: 469-478.

Ride, W. D. L. (1957). Protemnodon parma (Waterhouse) and the classification of related wallabies (Protemnodon, Thylogale and Setonyx). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 128: 327-346.

Ride, W. D. L. (1970). A Guide to the Native Mammals of Australia. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Scheffers, Brett R., Yong, Ding Li, Harris, J. Berton C., Giam, Xingli and Sodhi, Navjot S. (2011). The world’s rediscovered species: back from the brink? PLoS ONE 6(7): e22531. [Supporting Information (Table S1)]

Schoon, H.A., Schoon, D., Kirpal, G., Richter, E., Gerdes, J., Weiss, R. and Dressen, W. (1993). Enzootic Mycobacterium avium infection in captive parma wallabies (Macropus parma) with unusual spinal cord manifestations. Journal of Comparative Pathology 108: 311–316.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Taylor, A. C., Sunnucks, P. and Cooper, D. W. (1999). Retention of reproductive barriers and ecological differences between two introduced sympatric Macropus spp. in New Zealand. Anim. Conserv. 2: 195-202.

Thomas, Oldfield. (1888). Catalogue of the Marsupialia and Monotremata in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History). London: British Museum (Natural History). xiii + 401 pp, including 33 pls.

Vujcich, Matthew V. (1979). Aspects of the biology of Parma (Macropus parma Waterhouse) and Darma (Macropus Eugenii (Desmarest) wallabies with particular emphasis on social organisation. Thesis (M.Sc.) -- University of Auckland, 1979.

Wallis, R. L. and Ealey, E. H. M. (1972). Thermoregulation in the parma wallaby, Macropus parma (Marsupialia: Macropodidae). Australian Mammalogy 1: 243-249.

Wallis, R.L. and Maynes, G.M. (1973). Ontogeny of thermoregulation in Macropus parma (Marsupialia, Macropodidae). Journal of Mammalogy 54: 278-281.

Warburton, B. and Sadleir, R. M. F. (1990). Parma wallaby Macropus parma Waterhouse, 1845, pp. 51-57. In: King, C. M. (ed.). The Handbook of New Zealand Mammals. Auckland: Oxford University Press.

Waterhouse, George Robert. (1846). A Natural History of the Mammalia. Volume 1, Containing the Order Marsupiata or Pouched Animals. London: Hippolyte Baillière. 553 pp + 20 pls.

Webber, C.E. and Whalley, J.M. (1978). Widespread occurrence in Australian marsupials of neutralizing antibodies to a herpesvirus from a parma wallaby. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 56: 351~57.

Wodzicki, K. A. and Flux, J. E. C. (1967). Rediscovery of the white-throated wallaby, Macropus parma Waterhouse, 1846, on Kawau Island, New Zealand. Australian Journal of Science 29(11): 429-430.

Wodzicki, K. A. and Flux, J. E. C. (1967). Guide to Introduced Wallabies in New Zealand. Tuatara 15(2): [pagination?].


<< Back to the Diprotodontia database