Nombe nombe (Flannery, Mountain & Aplin, 1983)

Nombe kangaroo



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Protemnodon nombe Flannery, Mountain & Aplin, 1983 (basionym); Protemnodon niobe Flannery et al. 1981 (used by Hope & Aplin, 2007:249)


Transferred to the newly erected genus Nombe by (Kerr & Prideaux, 2022).


Conservation Status


Last record: before 25ka



New Guinea


Anatomy & Morphology

It weighed an estimated 40kg (Johnson & Prideaux, 2004:557; Johnson, 2006:18).


Biology & Ecology

It was a browser (Johnson, 2006:18).









Original scientific description:

Flannery, Timothy F., Mountain, Mary-Jane and Aplin, Ken. (1983). Quaternary kangaroos (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) from Nombe rock shelter, Papua New Guinea, with comments on the nature of megafaunal extinction in the New Guinea highlands. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 107(2): 75-97.


Other references:

Flannery T.F. 1983 Quaternary kangaroos (Macropodidae: Marsupialia) from Nombe Rock Shelter, Papua New Guinea, with comments on the nature of megafaunal extinction in the New Guinea Highlands. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 107, 75-97.

Hope, Geoffrey S. and Aplin, Ken P. (2007). Paleontology of Papua, pp. 246-254. In: Marshall, Andrew J. and Beehler, Bruce M. (eds.). The Ecology of Papua. Part One. Singapore: Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd.

Johnson, Chris N. (2006). Australia's Mammal Extinctions: A 50 000 Year History. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. x + 278 pp. [p. 18]

Johnson, Chris N. and Prideaux, Gavin J. (2004). Extinctions of herbivorous mammals in the late Pleistocene of Australia in relation to their feeding ecology: no evidence for environmental change as cause of extinction. Australian Ecology 29: 553-557.

Jones, Billie, Janis, Christine and Rayfield, Emily. (2020). Limb proportions indicate Protemnodon’s locomotion was divergent from modern large macropodines. Poster presentation (abstract), p. 46. In: Progressive Palaeontology 2020 Abstract Booklet.

Kerr, Isaac A. R., Camens, Aaron B., van Zoelen, Jacob D., Worthy, Trevor H. and Prideaux, Gavin J. (2024). Systematics and palaeobiology of kangaroos of the late Cenozoic genus Protemnodon (Marsupialia, Macropodidae). Megataxa 11(1): 1-261.

Kerr, Isaac A. R. and Prideaux, Gavin J. (2022). A new genus of kangaroo (Marsupialia, Macropodidae) from the late Pleistocene of Papua New Guinea. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia.

Mountain, Mary-Jane. (1991). Highland New Guinea Hunter-Gatherers: The Evidence of Nombe Rockshelter, Simbu With Emphasis on the Pleistocene. Thesis submitted for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the Australian National University.

Sutton, Alice, Mountain, Mary-Jane, Aplin, Ken, Bulmer, Susan and Denham, Tim. (2009). Archaeozoological records for the highlands of New Guinea: a review of current evidence. Australian Archaeology 69: 41-58.


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