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Gymnophiona (Caecilians)

 

Family: Caeciliidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Oscaecilia osae Lahanas & Savage, 1992 Airstrip caecilian, Osa caecilian (rediscovered) Costa Rica Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Dermophiidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Dermophis oaxacae (Mertens, 1930) Oaxacan caecilian (rediscovered) Mexico Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Grandisoniidae (=Indotyphlidae)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Gegeneophis seshachari Ravichandran, Gower & Wilkinson, 2003 Seshachari's caecilian (rediscovered) Dorle Village, Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra State, Western Ghats, India Rediscovered Access
Idiocranium russeli Parker, 1936 Makamunu Assumbo caecilian (rediscovered) Cameroon (southwestern) Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Herpelidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Boulengerula denhardti Nieden, 1912 Denhardti’s caecilian (rediscovered) Kenya Rediscovered Access
Boulengerula fischeri Nussbaum & Hinkel, 1994 Fischer's African caecilian (rediscovered) Cyangugu Prefecture, Rwanda Rediscovered Access
Herpele multiplicata Nieden, 1912 Victoria caecilian pre-1913 Cameroon Missing Access

 

Family: Ichthyophiidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Ichthyophis husaini Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 Husain's caecilian 1983 Garo Hills, Meghalaya state, India Invalid (synonym) Access
Ichthyophis hypocyaneus (Boie, 1827) Javan caecilian, Javanese caecilian, Marsh caecilian (rediscovered) Java (=Jawa), Indonesia Rediscovered Access
Ichthyophis longicephalus Pillai, 1986 Long-headed caecilian (rediscovered) Kerala, India Rediscovered Access
Ichthyophis weberi Taylor, 1920 Malatgan River caecilian (rediscovered) Palawan Island, Philippines Rediscovered Access
Uraeotyphlus interruptus Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 Chengalam caecilian 1992 Kerala, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus malabaricus (Beddome, 1870) Malabar caecilian, Nilgiris caecilian, White-lipped caecilian 1870 Malabar, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus menoni Annandale, 1913 Menon’s caecilian, Kerala caecilian pre-1914 Cochin, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus narayani Seshachar, 1939 Narayan’s caecilian, Kannan caecilian pre-1940 Kerala, India Rediscovered or relocated or never missing Access
Uraeotyphlus oommeni Gower and Wilkinson, 2007 Oommen’s caecilian 1987 Kerala, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus oxyurus (Dumeril & Bibron, 1841) Red caecilian, Dark-brown caecilian, Pale-throated caecilian, Sharp-nosed caecilian, Sharp-tailed caecilian pre-1842 Malabar, India Missing Access

 

Family: Rhinatrematidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Epicrionops columbianus Rendahl & Vestergren, 1938 El Tambo caecilian ? Colombia Missing Access
Epicrionops lativittatus Taylor, 1968 Eastern caecilian pre-1969 "eastern Peru" Missing Access
Epicrionops marmoratus Taylor, 1968 - ? Colombia & Ecuador Rediscovered? Access
Epicrionops parkeri Dunn, 1942 Parker's caecilian ? Colombia Missing Access
Rhinatrema bivittatum (Guérin-Méneville, 1829) Two banded caecilian, Two-lined caecilian (rediscovered) Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana & Surinam(e) Rediscovered Access

  

Family: Siphonopidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Siphonops leucoderus Taylor, 1968 Salvador caecilian ? Brazil Missing if valid Access

 

Family: Typhlonectidae

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Aretochoana eiselti Taylor, 1968 - (rediscovered) Brazil Rediscovered Access

 

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Detailed Presentation

 

Family: Caeciliidae (2 genera; 44 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Oscaecilia osae Lahanas & Savage, 1992 Airstrip caecilian, Osa caecilian (rediscovered) Costa Rica Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Chikilidae (1 genus; 4 recent species)

—No subordinate taxa

 

Family: Dermophiidae (4 genera; 14 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Dermophis oaxacae (Mertens, 1930) Oaxacan caecilian (rediscovered) Mexico Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Grandisoniidae (=Indotyphlidae) (7 genera; 24 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Gegeneophis seshachari Ravichandran, Gower & Wilkinson, 2003 Seshachari's caecilian (rediscovered) Dorle Village, Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra State, Western Ghats, India Rediscovered Access
Idiocranium russeli Parker, 1936 Makamunu Assumbo caecilian (rediscovered) Cameroon (southwestern) Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Herpelidae (2 genera; 10 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Boulengerula denhardti Nieden, 1912 Denhardti’s caecilian (rediscovered) Kenya Rediscovered Access
Boulengerula fischeri Nussbaum & Hinkel, 1994 Fischer's African caecilian (rediscovered) Cyangugu Prefecture, Rwanda Rediscovered Access
Herpele multiplicata Nieden, 1912 Victoria caecilian pre-1913 Cameroon Missing Access

 

Family: Ichthyophiidae (2 genera; 57 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Ichthyophis husaini Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 Husain's caecilian 1983 Garo Hills, Meghalaya state, India Invalid (synonym) Access
Ichthyophis hypocyaneus (Boie, 1827) Javan caecilian, Javanese caecilian, Marsh caecilian (rediscovered) Java (=Jawa), Indonesia Rediscovered Access
Ichthyophis longicephalus Pillai, 1986 Long-headed caecilian (rediscovered) Kerala, India Rediscovered Access
Ichthyophis weberi Taylor, 1920 Malatgan River caecilian (rediscovered) Palawan Island, Philippines Rediscovered Access
Uraeotyphlus interruptus Pillai & Ravichandran, 1999 Chengalam caecilian 1992 Kerala, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus malabaricus (Beddome, 1870) Malabar caecilian, Nilgiris caecilian, White-lipped caecilian 1870 Malabar, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus menoni Annandale, 1913 Menon’s caecilian, Kerala caecilian pre-1914 Cochin, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus narayani Seshachar, 1939 Narayan’s caecilian, Kannan caecilian pre-1940 Kerala, India Rediscovered or relocated or never missing Access
Uraeotyphlus oommeni Gower and Wilkinson, 2007 Oommen’s caecilian 1987 Kerala, India Missing Access
Uraeotyphlus oxyurus (Dumeril & Bibron, 1841) Red caecilian, Dark-brown caecilian, Pale-throated caecilian, Sharp-nosed caecilian, Sharp-tailed caecilian pre-1842 Malabar, India Missing Access

 

Family: Rhinatrematidae (3 genera; 14 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Epicrionops columbianus Rendahl & Vestergren, 1938 El Tambo caecilian ? Colombia Missing Access
Epicrionops lativittatus Taylor, 1968 Eastern caecilian pre-1969 "eastern Peru" Missing Access
Epicrionops marmoratus Taylor, 1968   ? Colombia & Ecuador Rediscovered? Access
Epicrionops parkeri Dunn, 1942 Parker's caecilian ? Colombia Missing Access
Rhinatrema bivittatum (Guérin-Méneville, 1829) Two banded caecilian, Two-lined caecilian (rediscovered) Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana & Surinam(e) Rediscovered Access

 

Family: Scolecomorphidae (2 genera; 6 recent species)

—No subordinate taxa

 

Family: Siphonopidae (5 genera; 28 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Siphonops leucoderus Taylor, 1968 Salvador caecilian ? Brazil Missing if valid Access

 

Family: Typhlonectidae (5 genera; 14 recent species)

Scientific Name Author/s Common Name Last Record Distribution Status Taxon Profile
Aretochoana eiselti Taylor, 1968 - (rediscovered) Brazil Rediscovered Access

 

Statistics

Based upon 215 recent species as of November 2022 (Amphibian Species of the World).

Conservation status Number of species
Extinct 0 (0%)
Missing 9 (4.19%)
Rediscovered (viable population) 0 (0.0%)
Rediscovered (viability unknown) 11 (5.12%)
Rediscovered (non-viable) 0 (0%)
Extinct in the wild (viable reintroduction) 0 (0%)
Extinct in the wild (non-viable reintroduction: habitat loss) 0 (0%)
Extinct in the wild (non-viable reintroduction: other) 0 (0%)
Uncertain status (extinct, missing, rediscovered) 2 (0.93%)
Uncertain status (taxonomic validity) 1 (0.465%)
Erroneously listed 0 (0%)
Invalid 1 (not applicable)

 

Discussion

As most caecilians are subterranean/fossorial, finding them is often by chance. And hence there is serious potential for species to disappear from the human record for long periods. This is borne out by the fact that 10.7% of all known recent species are either missing, have had to be rediscovered, or have uncertain status. Slightly more species have been rediscovered than are missing (11 vs. 9), though the discrepancy may be even more pronounced in the future as a number of species in the genus Uraeotyphlus (family Ichthyophiidae) are known only from lost type specimens which hinders investigation into their taxonomic validity (http://www.lostspeciesindia.org/LAI2/wanted.php).

Only two families (Ichthyophiidae and Rhinatrematidae) have a significant number of missing species, which does not fully coincide with the most speciose families. Ichthyophiidae is the most speciose family with 57 recent species, of which 5 species are missing (8.77%). Contrast this with the next most speciose family (Caeciliidae), which only has a single rediscovered species and no missing species (0%). While the family Rhinatrematidae only has 14 recent species, making it the equal 5th most speciose family, and yet has the second most missing species with three (21.43%). The reason for this is unclear, although one of the three missing species has no precise locality data, making it very difficult to target. Thus it has perhaps only 2 truly missing species (14.29%), and hence may be only a statistical anomaly.

 

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