Voay robustus Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872

Malagasy crocodile, Malagasy horned crocodile



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Crocodilus robustus Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872


Conservation Status


Last record: 1815 ± 80 cal a BP (Samonds et al., 2019)





Biology & Ecology




See (Rakotozandry et al., 2021:96) for a list of specimens.






Original scientific description:

Grandidier, A., and, Vaillant, L. (1872). Sur le crocodile fossile d'Amboulintsatre (Madagascar). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences Paris 75: 150-151.


Other references:

Bickelmann, C. and Klein, N. (2009). The late Pleistocene horned crocodile Voay robustus (Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872) from Madagascar in the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin. Fossil Record 12: 13-21. [Abstract]

Brochu, Christopher A. (2007). Morphology, relationships, and biogeographical significance of an extinct horned crocodile (Crocodylia, Crocodylidae) from the Quaternary of Madagascar. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150(4): 835-863. [Abstract]

Brochu, Christopher A., and, Storrs, G. W. (1995). The giant dwarf crocodile: a reappraisal of ‘Crocodylusrobustus from the Quaternary of Madagascar. In: Patterson, Goodman, and Sedlock, (eds.), Environmental Change in Madagascar.

Burney DA, James HF, Grady FV, Rafamantanantsoa J-G, Ramilisonina, Wright HT, Cowart JB. 1997. Environmental change, extinction and human activity: evidence from caves in NW Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography 24:755-767

Goodman SM, Jungers WL. 2014. Extinct Madagascar: picturing the Island’s past. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 296 pp

Hampe, Oliver, Schwarz-Wings, D., Bickelmann, C. and Klein, N. (2010). Fore limb bones of late Pleistocene dwarf hippopotamuses (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla) from Madagascar previously determined as belonging to the crocodylid Voay Brochu, 2007. Fossil Record 13: 303-307. [Abstract]

Hekkala, E. et al. (2021). Paleogenomics illuminates the evolutionary history of the extinct Holocene “horned” crocodile of Madagascar, Voay robustus. Communications Biology 4: 505.

Meador, Lindsay Renee. (2017). Who Ate the Subfossil Lemurs? A Taphonomic and Community Study of Raptor, Crocodylian and Carnivoran Predation of the Extinct Quaternary Lemurs of Madagascar. Dissertation. xvii + 388 pp.

Mook, Charles C. (1921). Description of a skull of the extinct Madagascar Crocodile, Crocodilus robustus Vaillant and Grandidier. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 44(4): 25-33.

Rakotozandry, R., Ranivoharimanana, L., Ranaivosoa, V., Rasolofomanana, N., Hekkala, E. and Samonds, K. E. (2021). Description of the subfossil crocodylians from a new Late Pleistocene subfossil site (Tsaramody, Sambaina Basin) in central Madagascar. Malagasy Nature 15: 94-107.

Rosenberger, Alfred L. et al. (In Press, 2015). Giant subfossil lemur graveyard discovered, submerged, in Madagascar. Journal of Human Evolution.

Samonds, Karen E. et al. (2019). A new late Pleistocene subfossil site (Tsaramody, Sambaina basin, central Madagascar) with implications for the chronology of habitat and megafaunal community change on Madagascar’s Central Highlands. Journal of Quaternary Science 34(6): 379-392.


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