Todiramphus cinnamominus (Swainson, 1821)

Guam kingfisher, Micronesian kingfisher, Sihek, Guam Micronesian kingfisher



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Todiramphus cinnamominus cinnamominus (Swainson, 1821)


Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild

Last record: 1986

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild





Biology & Ecology




[url=]RMNH 110.027[/url] (juvenile)






Baѕner, B., Baltz, A. and E. Diebold, E. (eds.). (1998). Micronesian Kingfisher Species Survival Plan: Husbandry Manual. Zoological Society of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

BirdLife International. (2014). Todiramphus cinnamominus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. ( Downloaded on 30 July 2014.

BirdLife International. 2017. Todiramphus cinnamominus (amended version of 2016 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T22725862A117372355. Accessed on 04 July 2022.

Gouraud, Christophe. (2014). Extinct and endangered species and subspecies of birds in the Baillon Collection, La Châtre, France. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 183(3): 29-38.

Haig, S. M. and Ballou, J. D. (1995). Genetic diversity in two avian species formerly endemic to Guam. Auk 112: 445-455.

Haig, S. M., J. D. Ballou, and N. J. Casna. (1995). Genetic identification of kin in Micronesian Kingfishers. Journal of Heredity 86: 423-431.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2001. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Fritts, T. H; Rodda, G. H. 1998. The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: A Case History of Guam. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 113-140.

Fry, C. H.; Fry, K. 1999. Kingfishers, bee-eaters, and rollers. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Kesler, D. C., and Haig, S. M. (2004). Thermal characteristics of wild and captive Micronesian Kingfisher nesting habitats. Zoo Biology 23: 301-308.

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292. [p. 179]

Laws, R.J. and Kesler, D.C. 2012. A Bayesian network approach for selecting translocation sites for endangered island birds. Biological Conservation 155: 178-185.

McElderry, Robert M. et al. (2022). Predation thresholds for reintroduction of native avifauna following suppression of invasive Brown Treesnakes on Guam. Ecological Applications.

Savidge, J. A. (1987). Extinction of an island forest avifauna by an introduced snake. Ecology 68: 660-668.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1993. A supplement to 'Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World'. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Trask, A. E. et al. (2021). Multiple life-stage inbreeding depression impacts demography and extinction risk in an extinct-in-the-wild species. Scientific Reports 11: 682.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (1984). Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of endangered status for seven birds and two bats on Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Federal Register 50 CFR Part 17 49:33881-33885.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2004). Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Sihek or Guam Micronesian Kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. [Online.] Available at


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