Todiramphus cinnamominus (Swainson, 1821)

Guam kingfisher, Micronesian kingfisher, Sihek, Guam Micronesian kingfisher



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Todiramphus cinnamominus cinnamominus (Swainson, 1821)


Conservation Status

Extinct in the wild

Last record: 1986

IUCN RedList status: Extinct in the Wild





Biology & Ecology




[url=]RMNH 110.027[/url] (juvenile)






Baѕner, B., Baltz, A. and E. Diebold, E. (eds.). (1998). Micronesian Kingfisher Species Survival Plan: Husbandry Manual. Zoological Society of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

BirdLife International. (2014). Todiramphus cinnamominus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. ( Downloaded on 30 July 2014.

Gouraud, Christophe. (2014). Extinct and endangered species and subspecies of birds in the Baillon Collection, La Châtre, France. Journal of the National Museum (Prague), Natural History Series 183(3): 29-38.

Haig, S. M. and Ballou, J. D. (1995). Genetic diversity in two avian species formerly endemic to Guam. Auk 112: 445-455.

Haig, S. M., J. D. Ballou, and N. J. Casna. (1995). Genetic identification of kin in Micronesian Kingfishers. Journal of Heredity 86: 423-431.

Kesler, D. C., and Haig, S. M. (2004). Thermal characteristics of wild and captive Micronesian Kingfisher nesting habitats. Zoo Biology 23: 301-308.

Savidge, J. A. (1987). Extinction of an island forest avifauna by an introduced snake. Ecology 68: 660-668.

Trask, A. E. et al. (2021). Multiple life-stage inbreeding depression impacts demography and extinction risk in an extinct-in-the-wild species. Scientific Reports 11: 682.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (1984). Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants: Determination of endangered status for seven birds and two bats on Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Federal Register 50 CFR Part 17 49:33881-33885.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2004). Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Sihek or Guam Micronesian Kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. [Online.] Available at


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