Gallicolumba menagei Bourns & Worcester, 1894:10

Tawitawi bleeding-heart, Sulu bleeding-heart



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: 1891 (Martin et al., 2023)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered


Local reports of this species from Siasi, Tawitawi, Tandubatu, Dundangan, Baliungan and Simunul exist, as well as a reputed sighting on Jolo. However, surveys have failed to rediscover the species as of June 2009 (I. Sarenas per Sykes 2009).



Tawitawi, Sulu Archipelago, Philippines


Biology & Ecology




Known only from two specimens.






Original scientific description:

Bourns, F. S. and Worcester, D. C. (1894). Preliminary notes on the birds and mammals collected by the Menage Scientific Expedition to the Philippine Islands. Occasional Papers of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences 1(1): 5-64.


Other references:

Allen, D. (1998). On the birds of Tawi Tawi province in the Philippines. Bull. Tsurumi Univ. 35: 73-154.

Allen, D. (1999). Tawi Tawi March 1999: a survey report. Unpublished report.

Baptista, L.F., Trail, P.W., Horblit, H.M., Christie, D.A., Kirwan, G.M. and Sharpe, C.J. 2013. Sulu Bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba menagei). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.. [Relevant pages]

BirdLife International. (2012). Species factsheet: Gallicolumba menagei. Downloaded from on 09/07/2012.

BirdLife International. 2016. Gallicolumba menagei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22691005A93299100. Downloaded on 31 December 2016.

Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J.; Crosby, M. J. & Tobias, J. A. (2005). Asian enigmas: "Lost" and poorly known birds: targets for birders in Asia. Birding Asia 3: 41-49.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Lowe, Stephen, Martin, Rob W., Symes, Andy, Westrip, James R. S. and Wheatley, Hannah. (2018a). Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Biological Conservation 227: 9-18.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Stattersfield, A. J. and Brooks, T. M. (2006). Going or gone: defining ‘Possibly Extinct’ species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126A: 7-24.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Wheatley, Hannah, Lowe, Stephen, Westrip, James R. S., Symes, Andy and Martin, Rob W. (2018b). Data for: Which bird species have gone extinct? A novel quantitative classification approach. Mendeley Data, V1, doi: 10.17632/vvjhpmyxb4.1

Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. (1999). Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

Gibbs, David, Barnes, Eustace and Cox, John (2001). Pigeons and Doves: A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. Robertsbridge, Sussex: Pica Press.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.

Martin, Thomas E., Bennett, Gareth C., Fairbairn, Andrew J. and Mooers, A. Ø. (2023). ‘Lost’ taxa and their conservation implications. Animal Conservation 26(1): 14-24. [Appendix S2 (1617 taxa not seen >10 years); Appendix S3 (562 taxa not seen >50 years)]

Sykes, B. (2009). OBC conservation: news update and requests for practical help. BirdingASIA 12: 107-108.


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