?Caloenas maculata Gmelin, 1789:780
Liverpool pigeon, Spotted green pigeon (use by Latham, 1783:642)
Taxonomy & Nomenclature
Synonym/s: Columba maculata Gmelin, 1789:780
Last record: Unknown; 1820's?; 1928?
IUCN RedList status: Extinct
Neither the provenance, nor the exact date of collection are known for the only known specimen of this species, which is almost certainly valid (Fuller, 2002), but which may be invalid (Steadman, 2001). One of the two original specimens (one of which is now presumed lost) may have come from Tahiti (BirdLife International, 2012). Reports of a similar bird called titi by the natives were made in 1928 on the same island (Henry, 1928).
Neither the provenance, nor the exact date of collection are known for the only known specimen of this species, which is almost certainly valid (Fuller, 2002), but which may be invalid (Steadman, 2001). One of the two original specimens (one of which is now presumed lost) may have come from Tahiti (BirdLife International, 2012). Reports of a similar bird called [i]titi[/i] by the natives were made in 1928 on the same island (Henry, 1928).
Biology & Ecology
Originally two specimens were collected, however one of these is now lost. A single specimen is now known (photograph [url=http://www.arkive.org/liverpool-pigeon/caloenas-maculata/#text=All]here[/url]). It currently resides in the Merseyside County Museums (BirdLife International, 2012).
Original scientific description:
Gmelin, Johann Friedrich. (1789). Systema Naturae. 1, 1789, p. 780, n. 52.
Anonymous. (1898). On the Type of the Spotted Green Pigeon, of Latham, in the Derby Museum. Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums 1(3-4): 83.
BirdLife International. (2012). Caloenas maculata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. (http://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 21 September 2012.
BirdLife International. 2016. Caloenas maculata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T22734732A95095848. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22734732A95095848.en. Accessed on 02 July 2022.
del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J. eds. 2002. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 7. Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
Forbes, H. O. (1898). On the type of the Spotted Green Pigeon, of Latham, in the Derby Museum. Bulletin of the Liverpool Museum 1: 83.
Fuller, Errol (2000). Extinct Birds. revised ed. Oxford University Press.
Gibbs, D., Barnes, E. and Cox, J. (2001). Pigeons and Doves: A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. Robertsbrige, Sussex: Pica Press. [Relevant pages]
Godino, F. M. J. (2012). Liverpool Pigeon. extinct-website.com / extinct-website.co.uk . Downloaded on Saturday, September 22, 2012.
Henry, Teuira. (1928). Ancient Tahiti. Bishop Museum Bulletin 48: viii + 651 pp [p. 386]. [Kraus Reprint in 1971?] [Irrelevant part of paper]
Heupink, Tim H., van Grouw, Hein and Lambert, David M. (2014). The mysterious Spotted Green Pigeon and its relation to the Dodo and its kindred. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14(1): 136.
Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.
Latham, John. (1783). A general synopsis of birds, Volume II, Part II. London, UK: White.
Raust, Philippe. (2020). On the possible vernacular name and origin of the extinct Spotted Green Pigeon Caloenas maculata. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 140(1): 3-6.
Rothschild, W. and Hartert, E. (1901). Notes on Papuan Birds. Novitates Zoologicae 8: 102-162.
Salvadori, T. (1893). Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum, volume 21. Catalogue of the Columbæ, or Pigeons, in the Collection of the British Museum. London: Printed by order of the Trustees.
Soares, André E. R. et al. (2016). Complete mitochondrial genomes of living and extinct pigeons revise the timing of the columbiform radiation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16: 230.
Steadman, David W. (2001). Pigeons and Doves: A Guide to the Pigeons and Doves of the World. The Auk 118(4): 1117-1118.
van Grouw, Hein. (2014). The Spotted Green Pigeon Caloenas maculata: as dead as a Dodo, but what else do we know about it? Bull BOC 134(4): 291-301.
Wagler, J. G. (1827). Systema avium. Stuttgartiae: Cottæ.