Caloenas canacorum Balouet & Olson, 1989:14

Kanaka maned pigeon, kanaka pigeon, Greater maned pigeon



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene?



New Caledonia & Tonga


Biology & Ecology




Holotype: NCP 300

Type locality: "Pindai Cave, Nepoui Peninsula, west coast of New Caledonia. 21°20'S, 164°57'E."



NCP 301

NCP 302

NCP 303

NCP 304

NCP 305

NCP 306

NCP 307






Original scientific description:

Balouet, Jean Christophe and Olson, Storrs L. (1989). Fossil Birds from Late Quaternary Deposits in New Caledonia. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 469: 1-38, 16 figures, 13 tables.


Other references:

Anderson, Atholl, Sand, Christophe, Petchey, Fiona and Worthy, Trevor H. (2010). Faunal Extinction and Human Habitation in New Caledonia: Initial Results and Implications of New Research at the Pindai Caves. Journal of Pacific Archaeology 1(1): 89-109.

Franklin, Janet and Steadman, David W. (2008). Prehistoric species richness of birds on oceanic islands. Oikos 117: 1885-1891. [Abstract]

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser. 544 pp.

Sayol, Ferran, Steinbauer, Manuel J., Blackburn, Tim M., Antonelli, Alexandre and Faurby, Søren. (2020). Anthropogenic extinctions conceal widespread evolution of flightlessness in birds. Science Advances 6(49): eabb6095. [Supplementary Material (Data File S1)]

Steadman, David W. (1989). New species and records of birds (Aves: Megapodiidae, Columbidae) from an archaeological site on Lifuka, Tonga. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 102: 537-552. [Caloenas cf. canacorum, so referrable either to this species or a closely related taxon]

Steadman, David W. (2006a). An extinct species of tooth-billed pigeon (Didunculus) from the Kingdom of Tonga, and the concept of endemism in insular landbirds. Journal of Zoology 268(3): 233-241.

Steadman, David W. (2006b). Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press. xiv + 594 pp.

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Burley, David V. (2019). Prehistoric avifaunas from the Kingdom of Tonga. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, zlz110, [Abstract]


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