Nitella gracilens H.Morioka (1941)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Nitella mucronata f. gracilens (H.Morioka) R.D.Wood 1962; Nitella furcata f. gracilens (H.Morioka) R.D.Wood 1965 [according to Langangen in Guiry & Guiry, 2011]; Nitella furcata var. sieberi f. gracilens (H.Morioka) R.D.Wood 1965 [according to Nozaki et al., 1998]


Conservation Status

Last record: 26 August 1939 or later

Rediscovered on 18 November 1995 (Nozaki et al., 1998)



Lake Ashi (=Ashinoko Lake =Hakone Lake =Asinoko-lake), Hakone area, Kanagawa Prefecture, Honshū, Japan


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Morioka, H. (1941). Charophyta Japonica (II). J. Jap. Bot. 17(2): 57-70.


Other references:

Anders Langangen in Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. 26 December 2011. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway.; searched on 24 September 2023.

Brodie, J., Andersen, R.A., Kawachi, M. & Millar, A.J.K. (2009). Endangered algal species and how to protect them. Phycologia 48(5): 423-428.

Hirose, H., Yamagishi, T. and Akiyama, M. (1977). Illustrations of the Japanese fresh-water algae. pp. [8 col. pls], [1]-933, 244 pls in text. Tokyo: Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. [in Japanese]

Nozaki, H. et al. (1994). Extinction of the natural populations and possibility of the revival of Japanese Nitellopsis obtusa (Characeae). Proc. Jap. Soc. Pl. Tax., 10: 45–50 (in Japanese with English abstract). [did not record this species]

Nozaki, H. et al. (1995). Current state of distribution of the Charales (Chlorophyta) in Japanese lakes. Jpn. J. Phycol., 43: 213–218 (in Japanese with English abstract). [did not record this species]

Nozaki, H., Kodo, M., Iya, K. M., Kato, M., Watanab, M. M. and Kasaki, H. (1998). Observations on the morphology and oospore wall ornamentation in culture of the rediscovered Japanese endemic Nitella gracilens (Charales, Chlorophyta). Eur. J. Phycol. 33: 357-359.

Raam, J. C van (2010). R.D. Wood's "Synopsis of the Characeae" adapted and modified. CD, privately distributed by the author in anticipation of publication.

Sakayama, H., Hara, Y., Arai, S., Sato, H. and Nozaki, H. (2004). Phylogenetic analyses of Nitella subgenus Tieffallenia (Charales, Charophyceae) using nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Phycologia 43: 672-681.

Sakayama, Hidetoshi, Kai, A., Nishiyama, M., Watanabe, M.M., Kato, S., Ito, M., Nozaki, H. and Kawai, H. (2015). Taxonomy, morphology, and genetic variation of Nitella flexilis var. bifurcata (Charales, Characeae) from Japan. Phycological Research 63(3): 159-166. [Supporting Information: Table S1 (loaction of samples), Table S2 (primers used), Table S3 (rbcL accessions)]

Sakayama, H., Miyaji, K., Nagumo, T., Kato, M., Hara, Y. and Nozaki, H. (2005). Taxonomic reexamination of 17 species of Nitella subgenus Tieffallenia (Charales, Charophyceae) based on internal morphology of the oospore wall and multiple DNA marker sequences. Journal of Phycology 41: 195-211.

Sakayama, H., Nozaki, H., Kasaki, H. and Hara, Y. (2002). Taxonomic re-examination of Nitella from Japan, based on microscopical studies of oospore wall ornamentation and rbcL gene sequences. Phycologia 41(4): 397-408.

Wang, Heyun, Liu, Chunhua and Yu, Dan. (2015). Morphological and reproductive differences among three charophyte species in response to variation in water depth. Aquatic Biology 24: 91-100. doi:10.3354/ab00638

Wood, R. D. (1962). New combinations and taxa in the revision of Characeae. Taxon 11(1): 7-25.

Wood, R. D. and Imahori, K. (1965). A revision of the Characeae. First Part. Monograph of the Characeae. pp. i-xxiv, 1-904. Weinheim: Verlag von J.Cramer.


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