Lestodon armatus Gervais, 1855



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene or Holocene





Biology & Ecology










Brambilla, Luciano and Ibarra, Damián A. (2018). The occipital region of late Pleistocene Mylodontidae of Argentina. Boletín del Instituto de Fisiografía y Geología 88: @-@.

Richard A. Fariña, P. Sebastián Tambusso, Luciano Varela, Ada Czerwonogora, Mariana Di Giacomo, Marcos Musso, Roberto Bracco and Andrés Gascue. (2014). Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones. Proc. R. Soc. B 281(1774): 20132211.

Fariña, Richard A., Vizcaíno, Sergio F. and Bargo, María S. (1998). Body mass estimations in Lujanian (late Pleistocene-Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna. Mastozoología Neotropical 5(2): 87-108.

Gallo, V. et al. (2013). Distributional patterns of herbivore megamammals during the Late Pleistocene of South America. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 85(2): 533-546.

Ghilardi, Aline Marcele, Fernandes, M. A. and Bichuette, M. E. (2011). Megafauna from the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits of the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeast Brazil. Quaternary International 245(2): 369-378.

Lopes, Renato Pereira et al. (2021). The Santa Vitória Alloformation: an update on a Pleistocene fossil-rich unit in Southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology 51(1): e2020065.

Nami, Hugo G. et al. (2020). A Fossil Bone of a Giant Ground Sloth from the Last Millennium of the Pleistocene: New Data from Salto Department, Uruguay. Archaeological Discovery 8(4): 295-310. doi: 10.4236/ad.2020.84017

Patiño, Santiago et al. (2021). Finite element and morphological analysis in extant mammals’ claws and quaternary sloths’ ungual phalanges. Historical Biology 33(6): 857-867. [Abstract]

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Tambusso, P. Sebastián, McDonald, H. Gregory and Fariña, Richard A. (2015). Description of the stylohyal boneof a giant sloth (Lestodon armatus). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.19A: 1-10.

Tomassini, Rodrigo L. et al. (2020). Gregariousness in the giant sloth Lestodon (Xenarthra): multi-proxy approach of a bonebed from the Last Maximum Glacial of Argentine Pampas. Scientific Reports 10: 10955.

Ubilla M., Perea D., Goso Aguilar C., Lorenzo N. 2004 Late Pleistocene vertebrates from northern Uruguay: tools for biostratigraphic, climatic and environmental reconstruction. Quaternary International 114(1), 129-142.

Varela, Luciano and Fariña, Richard A. (2016). Co-occurrence of mylodontid sloths and insights on their potential distributions during the late Pleistocene. Quaternary Research 85(1): 66-74. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2015.11.009 [Abstract]

Varela, Luciano, McDonald, H. Gregory and Fariña, Richard A. (2021). Sexual dimorphism in the fossil ground sloth Lestodon armatus (Xenarthra, Folivora). Historical Biology 34(3): 525-537.

Varela, L., Tambusso, P. S., Fariña, R. A. (2020). Unexpected inhibitory cascade in the molariforms of sloths (Folivora,
Xenarthra): a case study in xenarthrans honouring Gerhard Storch’s open-mindedness. Fossil Imprint, 76(1): 1-16, Praha. ISSN 2533-4050 (print), ISSN 2533-4069 (online).

Varela, Luciano, Tambusso, P. Sebastián, Patiño, Santiago J., Di Giacomo, Mariana and Fariña, Richard A. (2017). Potential Distribution of Fossil Xenarthrans in South America during the Late Pleistocene: co-Occurrence and Provincialism. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. [Abstract]

Vargas-Peixoto, Dilson et al. (2021). A new record of Lestodon armatus Gervais 1855 (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Quaternary of southern Brazil and remarks on its postcranial anatomy. Historical Biology 33(2): 159-175. [Abstract]


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