Nothrotherium maquinense Lund, 1839



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status






Biology & Ecology

"Carbon and oxygen isotopic values from P. onca [i.e. Jaguar] allow us to suggest that these individuals lived in arboreal savanna habitat between 26 and 33 kyr BP, could reach 209 kg and feed mainly on Nothrotherium maquinense, Tapirus terrestris and Alouatta sp., being a specialist."

(Dantas et al., 2022)


May have been a climber (Santos et al., 2023).









Alves-Silva, Laís et al. (In Press, 2023). Late Pleistocene mammals from northeastern Brazil caves: Taxonomy, radiocarbon dating, isotopic paleoecology (δ13C), and paleoenvironment reconstruction (δ13C, δ18O). Quaternary International.

Auler A.S., Piló L.B., Smart P.L., Wang X., Hoffmann D., Richards D.A., Edwards R.L., Neves W.A., Cheng H. 2006 U-series dating and taphonomy of Quaternary vertebrates from Brazilian caves. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240(3-4): 508-522.

de S. Barbosa, Fernando H. et al. (2021). First cancer in an extinct Quaternary non-human mammal. Historical Biology 33(11): 2878-2882.

Cartelle C., Hartwig W.C. 1996 A new extinct primate among the Pleistocene megafauna of Bahia, Brazil. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93(13), 6405-6409.

Dantas, Mário A. T. (2022). Estimating the body mass of the Late Pleistocene megafauna from the South America Intertropical Region and a new regression to estimate the body mass of extinct xenarthrans. Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Dantas, Mário André Trindade et al. (2021). Isotopic paleoecology (δ13C) of mesoherbivores from Late Pleistocene of Gruta da Marota, Andaraí, Bahia, Brazil. Historical Biology 33(5): 643-651. [Abstract]

Dantas, Mário André Trindade et al. (2022). Panthera onca (Linnaeus, 1758) from the late Pleistocene of Brazilian Intertropical Region: taxonomy, habitat, isotopic diet composition, and isotopic niche overlap with extinct faunivores. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 113: 103666.

Dantas, Mário A. T., Campbell, Sean Cody and McDonald, H. Gregory. (2023). Paleoecological inferences about the Late Quaternary giant ground sloths from the Americas. Research Square preprint.

Ghilardi, Aline Marcele, Fernandes M. A. and Bichuette, M. E. (2011). Megafauna from the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits of the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeast Brazil. Quaternary International 245(2): 369-378.

Leles, Daniela et al. (2018). Methodological innovations for the study of irreplaceable samples reveal giardiasis in extinct animals (Nothrotherium maquinense and Palaeolama maior). Parasitology International 67(6): 776-780. [Abstract]

McDonald, H. Gregory. (2023). A Tale of Two Continents (and a Few Islands): Ecology and Distribution of Late Pleistocene Sloths. Land 12(6): 1192.

Omena, Érica Cavalcante et al. (2020). Late Pleistocene meso-megaherbivores from Brazilian Intertropical Region: isotopic diet (δ13C), niche differentiation, guilds and paleoenvironmental reconstruction (δ13C, δ18O). Historical Biology.

Pujos, François. (2001). New data on the genus Nothrotherium Lydekker, 1889 and validity of the species N maquinense Lund, 1839 and N escrivanense Reinhardt, 1878. Geobios 34(3): 349-356. [Abstract]

Pujos, François et al. (2023). Description of a fetal skeleton of the extinct sloth Nothrotherium maquinense (Xenarthra, Folivora): Ontogenetic and palaeoecological interpretations. Journal of Mammalian Evolution.

Santos, Adaiana Marta Andrade, Mcdonald, H. Gregory and Dantas, Mário André Trindade. (2023). Inferences of the ecological habits of extinct giant sloths from the Brazilian Intertropical Region. Journal of Quaternary Science.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Steadman, David W. et al. (2005). Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands. PNAS 102(33): 11763-11768.ênero_Nothrotherium_Tardigrada_Xenarthra_No_Pleistoceno_Do_Estado_Da_Bahia_Resultados_Preliminares


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