Lestodon armatus Gervais, 1855



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene or Holocene





Biology & Ecology










Brambilla, Luciano and Ibarra, Damián A. (2018). The occipital region of late Pleistocene Mylodontidae of Argentina. Boletín del Instituto de Fisiografía y Geología 88: @-@.

Dantas, Mário A. T., Campbell, Sean Cody and McDonald, H. Gregory. (2023). Paleoecological inferences about the Late Quaternary giant ground sloths from the Americas. Research Square preprint.

Richard A. Fariña, P. Sebastián Tambusso, Luciano Varela, Ada Czerwonogora, Mariana Di Giacomo, Marcos Musso, Roberto Bracco and Andrés Gascue. (2014). Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones. Proc. R. Soc. B 281(1774): 20132211.

Fariña, Richard A., Vizcaíno, Sergio F. and Bargo, María S. (1998). Body mass estimations in Lujanian (late Pleistocene-Holocene of South America) mammal megafauna. Mastozoología Neotropical 5(2): 87-108.

Gallo, V. et al. (2013). Distributional patterns of herbivore megamammals during the Late Pleistocene of South America. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 85(2): 533-546.

Ghilardi, Aline Marcele, Fernandes, M. A. and Bichuette, M. E. (2011). Megafauna from the Late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits of the Upper Ribeira karst area, southeast Brazil. Quaternary International 245(2): 369-378.

Lopes, Renato Pereira et al. (2021). The Santa Vitória Alloformation: an update on a Pleistocene fossil-rich unit in Southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology 51(1): e2020065.

Marin-Monfort, D. et al. (In Press, 2023). Histotaphonomy of a Pleistocene megamammal assemblage from Argentine Pampas. Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

McDonald, H. Gregory. (2023). A Tale of Two Continents (and a Few Islands): Ecology and Distribution of Late Pleistocene Sloths. Land 12(6): 1192.

Nami, Hugo G. et al. (2020). A Fossil Bone of a Giant Ground Sloth from the Last Millennium of the Pleistocene: New Data from Salto Department, Uruguay. Archaeological Discovery 8(4): 295-310. doi: 10.4236/ad.2020.84017

Patiño, Santiago et al. (2021). Finite element and morphological analysis in extant mammals’ claws and quaternary sloths’ ungual phalanges. Historical Biology 33(6): 857-867. [Abstract]

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Tambusso, P. Sebastián, McDonald, H. Gregory and Fariña, Richard A. (2015). Description of the stylohyal boneof a giant sloth (Lestodon armatus). Palaeontologia Electronica 18.1.19A: 1-10.

Tomassini, Rodrigo L. et al. (2020). Gregariousness in the giant sloth Lestodon (Xenarthra): multi-proxy approach of a bonebed from the Last Maximum Glacial of Argentine Pampas. Scientific Reports 10: 10955.

Ubilla M., Perea D., Goso Aguilar C., Lorenzo N. 2004 Late Pleistocene vertebrates from northern Uruguay: tools for biostratigraphic, climatic and environmental reconstruction. Quaternary International 114(1), 129-142.

Varela, Luciano, Clavijo, Lucía, Tambusso, P. Sebastián and Fariña, Richard A. (2023). A window into a late Pleistocene megafauna community: Stable isotopes show niche partitioning among herbivorous taxa at the Arroyo del Vizcaíno site (Uruguay). Quaternary Science Reviews 317: 108286.

Varela, Luciano and Fariña, Richard A. (2016). Co-occurrence of mylodontid sloths and insights on their potential distributions during the late Pleistocene. Quaternary Research 85(1): 66-74. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2015.11.009 [Abstract]

Varela, Luciano, McDonald, H. Gregory and Fariña, Richard A. (2021). Sexual dimorphism in the fossil ground sloth Lestodon armatus (Xenarthra, Folivora). Historical Biology 34(3): 525-537.

Varela, L., Tambusso, P. S., Fariña, R. A. (2020). Unexpected inhibitory cascade in the molariforms of sloths (Folivora, Xenarthra): a case study in xenarthrans honouring Gerhard Storch’s open-mindedness. Fossil Imprint, 76(1): 1-16, Praha. ISSN 2533-4050 (print), ISSN 2533-4069 (online).

Varela, Luciano and Tambusso, P. Sebastián. (2023). 3D models related to the publication: 3D Finite Element Analysis and Geometric Morphometrics of Sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) Mandibles Show Insights on the Dietary Specializations of Fossil Taxa. Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

Varela, Luciano, Tambusso, P. Sebastián, Patiño, Santiago J., Di Giacomo, Mariana and Fariña, Richard A. (2017). Potential Distribution of Fossil Xenarthrans in South America during the Late Pleistocene: co-Occurrence and Provincialism. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. [Abstract]

Vargas-Peixoto, Dilson et al. (2021). A new record of Lestodon armatus Gervais 1855 (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Quaternary of southern Brazil and remarks on its postcranial anatomy. Historical Biology 33(2): 159-175. [Abstract]


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