Acratocnus odontrigonus Anthony, 1916:195

Lesser Puerto Rican ground sloth, Puerto Rican sloth



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Acratocnus major Anthony, 1918


Conservation Status


Last record: c. 31,670 BC



Puerto Rico


Biology & Ecology




UPRMP 2921 (partial right femora)

UPRMP 2982 (partial right femora)

UPRMP 2983 (left upper canine)






Original scientific description:

Anthony, H. E. (1916). Preliminary report on fossil mammals from Porto Rico, with descriptions of a new genus of ground sloth and two new genera of hystricomorph. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 27: 193-203.


Other references:

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Mancina, Carlos A., Woods, Charles A. and Kilpatrick, C. William. (2012). Checklist: Updated Checklist of Endemic Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies, pp. 389-415. In: Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Woods, Charles A. and Sergile, F. E. (eds.). Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies: Contributions. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Museum of Natural History and Wacahoota Press. 482 pp.

Gaudin, T. (2004). Phylogenetic relationships among sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada): the craniodental evidence. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 255-305.

McFarlane, D. A. (1999). Late Quaternary fossil mammals and last occurrence dates from caves at Barahona, Puerto Rico. Caribb. J. Sci. 35(3-4): 238-248.

Steadman DW, Pregill GK, Olson SL (1984) Fossil vertebrates from Antigua, Lesser Antilles: evidence for late Holocene human-caused extinctions in the West Indies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 81, 4448–4451.

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. [Supplementary Information]

Upham, Nathan S. (2017). Past and present of insular Caribbean mammals: understanding Holocene extinctions to inform modern biodiversity conservation. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 913-917.

Vélez-Juarbe, Jorge and Miller, Thomas E. (2007). First Report of a Quaternary Crocodylian from a Cave Deposit in Northern Puerto Rico. Caribbean Journal of Science 43(2): 273-277. [a report of C. odontrigonus from northern Puerto Rico]

White, J. L. and MacPhee, R. D. E. (2001). The Sloths of the West Indies: A Systematic and Phylogenetic Review, pp. 201-236. In: Woods, C. A. and Sergile, F. E. Biogeography of the West Indies: Patterns and Perspectives. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.


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