Steromphala nivosa (A. Adams, 1853)

Maltese topshell



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Gibbula nivosa A. Adams, 1853; Gibbula rotella Monterosato, 1888; Gibbula altimirai F. Nordsieck, 1982


Conservation Status

Last record: 1978

Rediscovered in 2006



Maltese Islands, Mediterranean


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Adams, A. (1853). Contributions towards a monograph of the Trochidae, a family of gasteropodous Mollusca. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (1851) 19: 150-192.

Other references:

Affenzeller S., Haar N. & Steiner G. (2017). Revision of the genus complex Gibbula: an integrative approach to delineating the Eastern Mediterranean genera Gibbula Risso, 1826, Steromphala Gray, 1847, and Phorcus Risso, 1826 using DNA-barcoding and geometric morphometrics (Vetigastropoda, Trochoidea). Organisms Diversity & Evolution 17(4): 789-812.

Cuttelod, A., Seddon, M. and Neubert, E. (2011). European Red List of Non-marine Molluscs. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

Evans J., Borg J.A. and Schembri P.J., (2010). Rediscovery of live Gibbula nivosa (Gastropoda: Trochidae). Rapp. Comm. int Mer. Medit., 39: 507.

Evans J., Borg J.A. and Schembri P. J. (2011). Distribution, habitat preferences and behaviour of the critically endangered Maltese top-shell Gibbula nivosa (Gastropoda: Trochidae). Mar. Biol., 158: 603-611.

Evans, Julian and Schembri, Patrick J. (2013). The resurrection of Gibbula nivosa (Gastropoda: Trochidae). Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Médit., 40: 653.

MolluscaBase eds. (2021). MolluscaBase. Steromphala nivosa (A. Adams, 1853). Accessed at: on 2022-04-03

Monterosato, T. A. di. (1888-1889). Molluschi del Porto di Palermo. Specie e varietà. Bullettino della Società Malacologica Italiana 13(11-13): 161-180.

Nordsieck, F. (1982). Die Europäischen Meeres-Gehäuseschnecken (Prosobranchia). Vom Eismeer bis Kapverden, Mittelmeer und Schwarzes Meer. 2., Völlig Neubearbeitete und Erweiterte Auflage. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, xii + 539: pp.

Schembri P.J., Borg J.A., Deidun A., Knittweis L. and Mellado Lopez T. (2007). Is the endemic Maltese Topshell Gibbula nivosa extinct? Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Medit., 38: 592.


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